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Friday, October 10, 2014

Water Audits for Small & Medium Business

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1. Background

2a. Acronyms/Definitions
2b. Units Definitions
3. Business Case
4. Benefits
5. Risks/Issues
6. Success Criteria
7. Case Studies
8. Companies
9. Links

  • While California agriculture uses a lot of water, it feeds the nation. There is a lot more we could do to conserve urban water use

2a. Acronyms/Definitions
  1. Aerator  - A screen-like component of a faucet or showerhead that reduces volumetric flow by introducing air into the stream of water.
  2. BMP – Best Management Practice - A practice or combination of practices established as the most practicable means of increasing water use efficiency.
  3. CUWCC – California Urban Water Conservation Council - Formed CII Task force (Commercial, Industrial, Institutional)
  4. ETo – Evapo-Transpiration - The quantity of water evaporated from soil surfaces and transpired by plants during a specific time An Adjustment factor is a fraction used to modify reference evapotranspiration to reflect an efficiency standard.
  5. Flushometer  - A commercial/institutional type toilet, which generates a flush by the opening of a valve directly connected to the pressurized building water system.

  6. HET – High Efficiency Toilet
  7. Hydrozoning - Groups plants according to water needs
    An independent irrigation “zone” for each hydrozone
    Uniform and appropriate irrigation equipment in each hydrozone.4
  8. IE - Irrigation Efficiency - A value representing the amount of water beneficially applied, divided by the total water applied. Also, the product of decimal equivalents representing hardware efficiency and management efficiency.
  9. IMH – Ice Making Head - Could be in a different location as ice dispenser, ( i,e, McDonald's)
  10. LWB - Landscape Water Budget - A volume of applied irrigation water expressed as a monthly or yearly amount, based on ETo and the plant material being watered.
  11. MaP - Maximum Toilet Performance -Rating at 500+ toilet performance In 2003, the average MaP score of all tested toilets was 336 grams (12 ounces), while by September 2012, the average score of 1,860 different toilet fixture models had more than doubled to 799 grams (28 ounces)
  12. NAICS – North American Industry Classification (was SIC code) water use efficiency by sector
  13. PRSV – Pre-rinse Spray Valve -  Pre-rinse spray valves  - big campaign in early 2000’s.  Older type could use 5 GPM, new ones 1.6.  High pressure, low flow. 5 year estimated life  CPUC/CUWCC PRSV Program $30 - $70 – retrofit cost
  14. PRV – Pressure Reducing Valve
  15. Rotary Nozzle – Replace spray sprinkler head. Fine mist is blown by the wind, evaporates before it hits the ground
    In-Line Emitter Tubing 
  16. Senate Bill x-7-7 – Water Conservation Act of 2009 20% reduction by 2020 = 154 GPCD
    Smart Controllers – Weather based Get weather data in different ways – signal based $5/mo, weather station based getting smaller and more unattrusive, wireless based, most recent kind is web based. No controls on box itself.. $200 - $ 500. Many localities are offering rebates.
  17. Urinal
    - Waterless urinal is less common than a few years ago due to maintenance, now going to a pint urinal.
    - Maintenance has to follow procedures

  18. Water Meters
    1. Displacement meters – utility grade, volumetric, highly accurate, not for sub-metering
      • Turbine meters – very low flow won’t get turbines to turn such as a small leak
      • Compound meters
      – Displacement for low flow
      – Turbine meters for high flow
      • Electromagnetic Water Meters – cut the pipe to put them in, but no impact on pumping energy. Sub-metering within a facility strategy
      Ultrasonic Flow Meter – no need to cut pipe, best temporary metering technology, non-intrusive, within 1% accuracy. Needs clean water with no particulates
      Doppler ultrasonic flow
      Need 30 straight diameters of pipe, may be hard to find
      2/3 of straight run, then 1/3 if cannot get 30

2b. Units Definitions
  1. AF -Acre Foot - Enough water to cover an acre of land one-foot deep 325,851 gallons or 43,560 cubic feet
    afa acre-feet per annum (year)
  2. BTU British Thermal Unit
  3. ccf - Hundred cubic feet, "c" for hundred "cf" for cubic feet.= 748 gal. = 1 unit
  4. cf - Cubic feet = 7.48 gal.
  5. Gal - Gallons, 1 gallon = 0.134 cubic feet
  6. GCD -  Gallons per capita per day
  7. GPCD – Gallons per capita per day – 192 in 2005 in Calif. 20% reduction by 2020 = 154
  8. GPD - Gallons per day
  9. GPF - Gallons per flush (toilet or urinal)
  10. GPM - Gallons per minute
  11. GPSF - Gallons per square foot
  12. KGal - One thousand gallons = 134 cubic feet
  13. LCD - Liters per capita per day
  14. LPF - Liters per flush (toilet or urinal)
  15. MAF – Million Acre Feet
  16. MG - Million gallons
  17. MGD - Millions of gallons per day
  18. MG/yr - Millions of gallons per year
    psi Pounds per square inch
    sf Square feet

3. Business Case

  • Water Audit – 
    • Steps
      • Pre-Audit
      • Site Visit
      • Analyses
      • Reports
    • Gathering information 
    • Establishing a baseline 
    • Taking an inventory 
    • Creating a water balance
    •  Developing an Action Plan 
  • Commercial Kitchen Opportunities

  • Ice makers  - Based on pounds of ice per day, 12 gallons of water to make 100 pounds of ice, 15 gal to 50 gal.   Old Single pass  water cooled units 100 – 300 gallons = 100 lbs
    • Air cooled units
    • water cooled
  • Dishwashers  - Commercial dishwasher has best pay back
    Based on 20” x 20” racks
     Chemical:Uses more water
    High-temp models:Uses less waterReaches 180o F

    Connection vs. Connectionless (filling a pan and putting it in a steamer)
    > 140 degrees
    New technology for Woks
  • Steamer
  • Boiler and Boilerless

4. Benefits

  • Operational Costs
    • Water Service
    • Sewer Service (Meter water re-use, cooling tower water re-use is metered and worked out with utility)
    • Heating Energy (Gas or Electric) Energy down the drain
  • Major investment projects
  • Equipment utilization – simple things, making sure dishwasher is full
  • Permit compliance
  • Public Image – Green certified restaurant on window
    Weather Based Sensors – 30% savings in Folsom study
  • Benefits of Water Audit
    • Lower costs / Save $$$ 
    • Stop or minimize asset damage 
    • Reduce risk (slips)
    • Gain a competitive edge 
    • Plan for upgrades 
    • Reinvest the savings (pre-wash spray valve)\
    • Become a ‘Green’ Leader

5. Risks/Issues
  • Earthquake breaking water lines to Bay Area. Supposed to save 1 gallon per person per day for 5 days. So we should be saving 15 gallons
  • Mindsets
  • Budgets
  • Oversight
  • Sewer Bill as a fixed percent of water bill may not take account of gray water savings.

6. Success Criteria
  1. Don't call it a Water Audit, call it a water use check up, call it an assessment or an evaluation  or some other benign term
  2. Sub-meter landscape vs. interior and multi-use buildings (ie laundry)
7. Case Studies
  • xxx

8. Companies
  1. HydroPoint  data systems– Petaluma, CA – WeatherTrak
  2. Rainbird – Wireless soil moisture sensors
  3. Sloan
  4. Weathermatic - Garland, TX

9. Links
  1.  PG&E has a drought web page with information about their water-related incentives and other water-related initiatives - -
  2. Water Audit Basics for Small to Medium Size Businesses - September 30, 2014, 8:30 am to 4:30 pm at PEC, 851 Howard Street in SF.  Class materials from this training have been posted at this location:

  3. US Drought Monitor 
  4. EBMUD WaterSmart Guidebook 
  5. EPA - WaterSense at Work 
  6. Foodservice Technology Training Center 
  7. Irrigation
  8. Commercial Water Use Fixtures and Appliances:
  9. Landscape and Water Budgets:

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for sharing such nice information about water audit.. keep writing..

    Anne Cole
    Water Efficiency Audit