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Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Title 24 2016 Non-Residential

California's Building Energy Efficiency Standards are updated on an approximately three-year cycle. The 2013 Standards continue to improve upon the 2008 Standards for new construction of, and additions and alterations to, residential and nonresidential buildings and went into effect on July 1, 2014. 2016 revisions are under discussion now and are scheduled to take effect Jan 1, 2017

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1. Background

2. Acronyms/Definitions
3. Proposed Revisions Non Residential
4. Benefits
5. Risks/Issues
6. Success Criteria
7. Companies/Organizations
8. Links

1.Background
  • Policy Drivers
    • Governor's “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” 
    • Zero Net Energy: Residential by 2020 and Nonresidential by 2030 
    • CARB Climate Change Scoping Plan 
    • California Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan

  • 2016 Standards Update Process
    • April 4, 2014 - CBIA/CEC Standards Forum
    • April – May 2014 - IOU CASE Stakeholder Meetings
    • May – Aug 2014 - CEC Staff Public Workshops
    • November 2014 - Draft 2016 Standards
    • January 2015 - Release 45-day Language
    • April 2015 - Release 15-Day Language
    • May 2015 - Adoption at CEC Business Meeting
    • January 1, 2017 - Effective Date of the Standards

2. Acronyms/Definitions
  1. ACM - Alternate Calculation Method - California Building Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings allow compliance by either a prescriptive or performance method. Performance compliance uses computer modeling software to trade off efficiency measures. For example, to allow more windows, the designer will specify more efficient windows, or to allow more west-facing windows they will install a more efficient cooling system. Computer performance compliance is typically the most popular compliance method because of the flexibility it provides in the building design.

  2. B/C - Benefit to Cost Ratio - Important metric in determining revisions to Title 24

  3. CASE - Codes And Standards Enhancement - Through CASE Reports, the IOUs will provide the California Energy Commission with the technical and cost-effectiveness information required to make informed judgments on proposed standards for promising energy efficiency design practices and technologies. Stakeholder Meetings provide an opportunity for stakeholders to help inform the development of these codes change proposals. The IOUs encourage participation in this step of the process through the submission of data— both primary sources and references to existing data, e.g., reports, spreadsheets, etc.

  4. CZ - Climate Zone - 16 zones in California used by the California Energy Commission to determine which energy efficiency measures are appropriate in which environment.  In more moderate climates along the coast, certain energy efficiency investments may not be economic.
    California Climate Zones

    1. FEG - Fan Efficiency Grades - A numerical rating that classifies fans by their aerodynamic ability to convert mechanical shaft power to air power.  A more efficient fan model will have a higher FEG rating. FEGs apply to the efficiency of the fan only and not to the motor and drives. This metric has been adopted by ASHRAE and was created by the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA).

    2. J-Curve - Goal is to maximize efficiency with no increase in total life cycle cost (LCC)
      Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014


    3. LCC - Life Cycle Costs - The legislation authorizing Title 24 requires “The standards adopted or revised pursuant to subdivisions shall be cost-effective when taken in their entirety and when amortized over the economic life of the structure compared with historic practice. When determining cost-effectiveness, the commission shall consider the value of the water or energy saved, impact on product efficacy for the consumer, and the life cycle cost of complying with the standard.”
      • Discounted cash flows for costs and benefits
      • Accounts for maintenance costs/benefits 
      • Appropriate discount rates and life of measures - 30 years for residential measures

      The Annual LCC Method: Change in LCC =  Change in Initial Cost of Construction -  Present Value of Electricity Cost Savings -  Present Value of Gas Cost Savings ΔLCC = ΔConstruction –PV(Electricity) – PV(Gas)  (Discount Rate: 3% Life Cycle: 15 and 30 years)

    4. LPA - Lighting Power Allowance - The maximum allowable lighting density permitted by the code. It is expressed in watts per square foot for a given occupancy/space type

    5. LPD -  Lighting Power Density - Technically represents the load of any lighting equipment in any defined area, or the watts per square foot of the lighting equipment. However, in the lighting industry it is often associated with the lighting power allowance (LPA) permitted by the building energy code in question.

    6. TDV - Time Dependent Valuation - The TDV factors are used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures in buildings.  The metric values energy efficiency based on when energy savings occur, reflecting the variations over time in the cost of energy production and delivery.  Based on hourly (or monthly) cost of energy, scaled to rates and climate zone sensitive 
      • Value of gas and electricity changes depending on the season and the time of day
      •  8,760 TDV multipliers for each hour of the year 
      • Favors measures that save energy during high demand periods


    3. Proposed Revisions - Non-Residential
    • TDV
      • 1. Develop hourly 15-year and 30-year forecasts of avoided cost of energy 
        • Residential and Nonresidential Electricity Costs 
        • Residential and Nonresidential Natural Gas Costs 
        • Residential and Nonresidential Propane Costs 
      • 2.  Calculate net present value (NPV) of cost stream  - 3% real discount rate (at 2% inflation = 5% nominal) 
      • 3.  Convert NPV costs ($/unit energy) into TDV energy factors (kWh/kBtu for electricity)
      • Incorporate assumptions from the 2013 Integrated Energy Report (IEPR
        • Natural gas cost to electric generators 
        • Marginal energy costs under various demand and generation scenarios 
        • GHG costs 
        • Electric and natural gas rate forecasts 
      •  Update hourly electric marginal cost of energy 
      •  Incorporate Effective Load Carrying Capability (ELCC) method for electric generation capacity allocation factors
      • Update electric T&D marginal costs

    • Opaque envelope - The opaque envelope U-factor prescriptive requirements will be updated. No changes to fenestration requirements.  Envelope Requirements last updated for the 2008 code cycle.   General feedback is most designers build to meet  minimum prescriptive requirements, except for LEED and special incentivized projects
      • General Findings 
        • Comparing assemblies (not U-factors):  ASHRAE 90.1 is more stringent for metal building and wood-framed roofs.  Title 24 is as or more stringent than 90.1-2013 for most wall types
        • Greater opportunity for improvement in mild climate zones 
        •  Greater opportunity for improvement in roof assemblies 
    • Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014

      • Nonresidential 
        • Increase metal building roof insulation requirement from R-19 to filled cavity, R-19+R-10 
        • Increase wood-framed roof requirement from R-11 to R-19 in some cases 
        •  No change planned for steel-framed wall 
        • No significant change planned for wood-framed wall
      • High-rise residential 
        • Increase metal building roof insulation to FC 
        •  Increase steel-framed wall, similar to nonresidential req. 
        • No change planned for steel-framed wall
        • Minor updates to wood-framed wall requirements

    • HVAC and WH Equipment Efficiency - In order for Title 24 to be consistent with both ASHRAE 90.1 and the Code of Federal Regulations, the proposed measure will update Title 24 Table 110.2-K Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers, Minimum Efficiency Requirements to match the new boiler efficiency levels.  A cost effectiveness analysis will not be required since the proposed efficiencies will be adopted by the DOE which has already been vetted through the ASHRAE standards committee and submitted for public review

    • Thermally Driven Cooling -  This potential new code change affects newly installed thermally driven chillers where the cooling effect is driven by heat rather than mechanical compressors. The heat source could be solar thermal, waste heat, or a combination. The waste heat could be process heat, cogeneration, or other sources. Absorption chillers are the most common form of thermally driven chillers and have been available for over 50 years. A number of manufacturers currently offer a variety of absorption chillers. Another form of cooling that makes use of waste heat is desiccant cooling. Desiccants are used to remove water vapor out of an air stream and waste heat is used to regenerate the desiccant so it is ready to absorb more water vapor. The dried air is then evaporative cooled.

      This potential change would offer a Title 24 compliance credit for the performance (whole building simulation energy trade-off) approach when cooling spaces with a thermally driven chiller. This is neither a prescriptive requirement nor a mandatory requirement and does not affect the base case budget of the performance approach. This change would allow some nonresidential and high-rise multifamily buildings to take credit for the presence of a heat recovery chiller.

      Thermal Cooling Benefits 
      • Provides end-users more options to manage and control energy use profile  
      • Potential electrical peak demand reduction  
      • Potential for customer utility bill savings, especially with TOU rates  
      • Opportunities for improved plant efficiency using heat recovery

    • Door and Windows Switch Controls - Any directly conditioned space with manually operable wall or roof openings to the outdoors shall be provided with interlock controls that disable mechanical heating and mechanical cooling to that space (e.g. by resetting the heating setpoint to 50F and the cooling setpoint to 100F) when any such opening is open. Mechanical cooling may remain enabled when an opening is open if outside air temperature is below space temperature.
    Add caption
    • Issues:
      • Occupant wants more fresh air and does not know or care about heating/cooling energy penalty. This is particularly true when the space temperature can be maintained at setpoint despite the extra infiltration load. 
      • Occupant does not know the zone mode (heating/cooling) or outside temperature so cannot gauge if opening the window will reduce or increase energy use.
      • Occupant opened the window under favorable conditions but left the room (with the window open) and conditions changed to unfavorable
    • Additional Non- Energy Benefits
      • Occupants will quickly learn that HVAC is interlocked and thus will feel free to open windows without fear of wasting heating/cooling energy thus resulting in improved air quality and occupant satisfaction. Studies have shown that occupants are willing to accept wider temperature dead-bands in buildings with operable windows.
      • Signal lights can easily be included (e.g. green light on thermostat display) that encourage occupants to open windows when conditions are favorable, thereby increasing energy savings and allowing occupants to feel good about saving energy.
      • The ACM rules will encourage architects to include operable windows in their designs.

    • Fan efficiency grades  - The fan efficiency measure will propose using a new metric known as the Fan Efficiency grade (FEG), a metric adopted by ASHRAE and created by the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA). The fan efficiency measure will require a minimum FEG of 67, and the total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within 15 percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan.

      This measure may for the most part already be a standard practice in the industry, as a FEG value of 67 is not a very high bar.  Energy savings may be minimal, but the minimum can always be raised once the metric is established.

    • Direct Digital Controls - The proposed measure is derived from ASHRAE 90.1 (2013) Section 6.4.3.10 and has already been vetted publically.  Would mandate DDC systems for certain building applications that are currently not required. By expanding the scope of applications requiring DDC, energy management data would be more readily available allowing for more efficient systems operations and the implementation of effective energy efficiency strategies. The measure would also specify the minimum capability of such mandated DDCs to ensure the full benefit of DDC for energy management.

      The proposed measure will have the greatest impact on small buildings and limited impact on medium and large buildings.  Most savings will be derived from Demand Control Ventilation, set point reset and optimum start controls

      Existing 2013 Title 24 does not have any requirements for Direct Digital Controls. It does define Direct Digital Controls as:  a type of control where controlled and monitored analog or binary data, such as temperature and contact closures, are converted to digital format for manipulation and calculations by a digital computer or microprocessor, then converted back to analog or binary form to control mechanical devices. This measure would add DDC requirements to Section 120.2 – Required Controls for Space-Conditioning Systems. The requirement of DDCs will apply to both new buildings and retrofits (alterations and additions) with HVAC systems of a set minimum size.The DDC systems that are mandated by proposed Table 120.2-A, above, shall have the following capabilities but not limited to:
    • Monitor zone and system demand for fan pressure, pump pressure, heating, and cooling.
    • Transfer zone and system demand information from zones to air distribution system controllers and from air distribution systems to heating and cooling plant controllers.
    • Automatically detect those zones and systems that may be excessively driving the reset logic and generate an alarm or other indication to the system operator.
    • Readily allow operator removal of zone(s) from the reset algorithm.
    • For new buildings, the DDC system shall be capable of trending and graphically displaying input and output points.
    • Note that buildings with mandated DDC systems will trigger another section of Title 24, Section 120.2(h), requiring Automatic Demand Response (ADR) capabilities,

    • HVAC Economizer Modifications - The 2013 Title 24 code requires that economizers be installed on packaged HVAC units commonly known as Roof Top Package Units (RTU) with cooling capacity equal to or greater than 54,000 Btuh. In practical terms, 5-ton RTUs and larger must have an economizer. Controls for economizers must have a Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) system that meets a list of requirements in section 120.2(i). The controls requirements have been reviewed by the industry and the FDD Committee of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance, and are approved and listed by the California Energy Commission. Recent laboratory testing has developed new insights to the performance of economizers.

      In response to stakeholder concerns and laboratory results, a set of modifications and additions are proposed for the 2013 code, including the following:
    • Clarify that controls for the economizer can be either stand alone or integrated into the RTU system controller. Manufacturers must list their compliant controller, either standalone or integrated, with the CEC.2 Also clarify how faults shall be reported in section 120.2(i)7.
    • Explore whether refrigerant pressure sensors requirements should still be included in section 120.2(i)3. Also, explore exempting packaged direct expansion units from refrigerant charge testing by modifying acceptance test requirements.
    • Modify standards to address field study findings indicating that when economizer dampers are fully open, airflow is rarely equal to 100% of the design airflow.
    • Modify standards to address field study findings indicating that leakage through economizer dampers is much higher than designed.
    • Coordinate and collaborate with the ASHRAE proposed standard 207P committee to develop a fully vetted standard for FDD.
    • Integrate the Economizer Testing guidance document into the Nonresidential Appendix and other appropriate locations.
    • Develop the scope of work for lab and field data necessary for projected 2019 Title 24 modifications.

    • Elevator Lighting and HVAC Controls  - Based on ASHRAE 90.1.  Anticipated to be mandatory,  This measure is being proposed in order to reduce electricity use in elevators when they are unoccupied, as well as reducing the energy used during operation.

      It is already industry standard practice for all new construction elevators to be installed with the sleep mode technology.   Most older elevators do not have sleep mode or LEDs installed. Most of the savings will result from upgrading older elevators during retrofits that trigger code. (Assumed to be 5% of elevators each year)
      • Will require elevator cabins to turn off lighting and ventilation when unoccupied for more than 15 minutes. 
      • Will require all cab lighting systems to have an efficacy greater or equal to 60 lumens per Watt. (ASHRAE 90.1 is only 35 lpW). 
      • Cab ventilation fans for elevators without air conditioning shall not consume over 0.33 W/cfm at maximum speed.

    • Escalator and Moving Walkway Speed Controls - Based on ASHRAE 90.1.  Adds a prescriptive requirement that new escalators and moving walkways must be equipped with speed control technology under the guidelines set forth in ASME A17.1, 2013.  
      Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014
      Currently escalators and moving walkways run at full speed during all hours of operation in the state of California, whether they are loaded or not.  Intermittent speed escalators and moving walkways are popular in Europe, and a few have already been installed in California with a special variance.

      Sensor issues still exist.  Black clothing is not always picked up. Approach angles vary.  The general consensus that this measure should be prescriptive instead of mandatory

      Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014

    • Nonresidential Indoor Lighting Power LPDs - The Lighting Power Densities (LPD) in Title 24 are subject to change as new technologies (in particular, light source technologies that increase lamp efficacy) become available to the market. As a result, the LPD values continue to be revised downward over time in response to these technological advancements.
    • Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
      June 24, 2014
      ASHRAE 90.1-2013 has recently adopted LPD values for several building spaces that are similar to Title 24 LPD values. While 90.1 and Title 24 aren’t always directly comparable, there is widespread compatibility of the allowances in the two documents. Title 24 is required to have an energy code that is at least as stringent as the national energy code, however, ASHRAE 90.1-2013 is more stringent in some cases.

      This measure intends to make LPD adjustments to a selection of space categories and whole building values to reflect the values that have been established by ASHRAE 90.1 in their consensus-built document.

      Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
      June 24, 2014

      Lighting technology is improving. 

      • HPT8 lamps are marginally better than they were 5 years ago, but much more prevalent.
      • LED light sources are rapidly improving light sources are rapidly improving.
      •  LPD allowances are going to become increasingly less restrictive to design if they remain unchanged as new light source technologies continue to improve (LED)
        Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
        June 24, 2014
    • Nonresidential Lighting Control and Partial On Occupancy Sensors  - 
      • Partial-ON Controls Requirements - The existing lighting controls in Title 24 do not require partial-ON lighting controls. There is an existing power adjustment factor (PAF) in Table 140.6-A that provides an adjustment to the lighting power allowance (LPA) for spaces that include a partial-ON control approach (0.20 factor). There is a second PAF in Table 140.6-A that is intended for a combined Partial-ON and manual dimming control approach (0.25 factor).

        The partial-ON requirement has now been employed in ASHRAE 90.1-2013 as a minimum required measure (in conjunction with a manual-ON option). As a result, this approach has the general support of the design community.

        The intent is to remove the two PAF allowances and add language to Section 130.1(c) that will mandate the use of partial-ON occupancy sensors in applications where appropriate.

      • While the use of lighting controls is widespread, many designers employ an Automatic-On (to 100% output) approach for spaces. 100% output) approach for spaces.Manual-On (Vacancy Sensors) is employed for energy efficiency projects and by “green design teams regularly.

      • Issue: Lights coming on in the dimmed state can cause flicker the dimmed state, can cause flicker and strobe and strobe problems.  [CASE Team] This is an issue, but in many cases this is a result of improperly paired ballasts and lamps, not necessarily the fault of the dim level, especially since the level that the lighting is required to energize at is in the 50-70% range, rather than at a very low level. This concern will be considered in the language proposed for the code revision.

      • Occupancy Sensor Maximum Delay Time Requirement - The current language in Section 130.1 does not define a maximum delay time that occupancy sensors are permitted to be programmed with under normal circumstances. Section 1605.3(L)(2)(G)1 of Title 20 (the California appliance standard) defines that the maximum delay time that is permitted to be available in an occupancy sensor device sold in California is 30 minutes, however, that is not reasonable guidance for the maximum delay time under normal design circumstances.

        For this reason, and in keeping with the general recommendations that are established in ASHRAE 90.1, the intent is to add a maximum delay time to Section 130.1(c) to limit delay time to 20 minutes in all circumstances. This maximum will also be added to the acceptance testing process for occupancy sensors.

    • Outdoor lighting LPAs -The Outdoor Lighting Power Allowance (LPA) values in Title 24 are subject to change as new technologies (in particular, light source technologies that increase lamp efficacy) become available to the market. As a result, the LPA values have continued to slowly move downward over time in response to these technological advancements, most recently for pulse-start Metal Halide technology.

      x
      Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
      June 24, 2014

      ASHRAE 90.1-2013 has recently adopted values for exterior lighting that are similar to Title 24 LPA values. While 90.1 and Title 24 aren’t always directly comparable, there is widespread compatibility of the allowances in the two documents.

      However, ASHRAE 90.1-2013 is more stringent in some cases, and Title 24 is required to have an energy code that is at least equal to the national energy code.

      Light technology is improving. Pulse Start Metal Halide (PSMH) lamps are better than probe start lamps used as the basis in the past, and LEDs are lamps used as the basis in the past, and LEDs are  rapidly improving.  It is proposed to revise the basis of design from Metal Halide light sources to LED, project the efficacy of LED in 2017 and establish new LPA values for all in 2017 and establish new LPA values for all  outdoor lighting allowances.  The following Title 24 exterior allowances appear to be candidates for revision:
      • General hardscape allowance (IWA, AWA, LWA)
      • Outdoor Sales Frontage
      • Outdoor Sales Lots
      • Vehicle Service Station Hardscape
      • Vehicle Service Station Uncovered Fuel Dispenser
      • Vehicle Service Station Canopies
      • Sales Canopies
      • Non-Sales Canopies
      • Facades
      • Outdoor Dining

    • Outdoor lighting controls, Including Bi-level controls
      • Removal of occupancy lighting controls exception for sales lots and sales canopies -  Title 24 2013 included new lighting controls requirements for exterior fixtures. The most significant of these requirements calls for occupancy sensing capability and a corresponding reduction in wattage and output during vacant periods. The code language created exceptions for a number of different applications, including sales lots and sales canopies. This code change proposal will consider removing the exceptions for these applications. The proposed code change will not impact the exception for sales frontage, as defined in the code.

         Bulk of sales lots are are auto sales lots.  Bulk of sales canopies are fueling station canopies- found in auto sales as well

      • Revision of lighting controls exception threshold for exterior fixtures -   Title 24 2013 created exceptions to the occupancy sensing/bi-level requirement for pole mounted fixtures less than 75 watts and non-pole mounted fixtures less than 30 watts. This code change proposal will evaluate if market and technology developments justify reducing these thresholds.
      • Conservative Total Measure Savings: 1.62 GWh
    • Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
      June 24, 2014

    • 4. Benefits - 
        “Energy Efficiency is the cheapest, fastest, and most reliable 
        way to create jobs, save consumers money and cut pollution 
        from the power sector.” Governor Jerry Brown 
      • Green Job Creation  -  Most new jobs should and will be created in the private sector, but government can play an important role in establishing a favorable climate for job creation. 
      • Higher Paying Jobs 
      • Investment By Entrepreneurs 
      • Global Competitiveness
      5. Risks/Issues
      • xxx
      6. Success Criteria
      1. More Efficient Buildings… Require the manufacturing, design, installation, monitoring and maintenance of efficient systems and technologies,
      2. Establish a plan and timeline to make new homes and commercial buildings “Zero Net Energy” 
      3. Highly efficient structures that use onsite renewable energy for all their electricity and natural gas needs 
      4. Design new more efficient buildings that use half the energy they compared to the 2008 Standards home

      7 Companies/Organizations
      1. AEC - Architectural Energy Corporation - Boulder, CO, (also San Francisco; Nashville; Fairfax, VA; and Springfield, MO) -   Subsidiary of United Technologies since 2008 -   Provides Sustainable Building Services including sustainable design consulting for new construction and renovation and architectural/engineering services for sustainable energy management for both supply and demand side energy in new and existing buildings.   Portfolio includes energy and daylighting analysis, sustainable design consulting, LEED® certification consulting, commissioning, measurement and verification, energy auditing, design and construction services and retro-commissioning. John Arent jarent@archenergy.com - Nonresidential Opaque Envelope

      2. ASWB Engineering Tustin, CA -  Management Consultants specializes in helping clients identify and implement measures to increase energy efficiency, improve system operation, and reduce operating costs.  John Baffa, EIT,  Jbaffa@aswb-engineering.com - Escalators, Elevators, Fan Efficiency; Scott Bailey  sebailey@aswb-engineering.com - Direct Digital Controls (DDC)

      3. CEC - California Energy Commission -  Workshops, Notices, and Documents2016 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Pre-Rulemaking

      4. Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc.  -  San Francisco-based consulting firm since 1989. Experienced in linking technical-economic analysis to policy decision-making and public process.  E3 worked on the 2005 and 2008 Title 24 TDV

      5. Energy Solutions - Oakland, CA - Experience includes evaluating emerging technologies, benchmarking building energy use, conducting energy audits, acting as owner’s representative, designing and implementing energy efficiency programs, developing and defending state and federal appliance and building standards, and developing marketing strategies to maximize program impacts. -  Mike McGaraghan mmcgaraghan@energy-solution.com  Outdoor Lighting Controls

      6. PECI - Portland, OR - Designs and manages energy efficiency programs for utility providers, government organizations and other clients Matt Tyler, PE, mtyler@peci.org - Thermally  Drive Cooling

      7. Taylor Engineering - Alameda, CA - Engineering firm specializing in mechanical systems design and construction, energy conservation, indoor air quality, controls, and system commissioning.   Jeff Stein, jstein@taylor-engineering.com - Window and Door Switches

      8. http://title24stakeholders.com/ - 

      9. TRC Solutions - Lowell, MA - A national engineering, consulting, and construction management firm that provides integrated services to the energy, environmental and infrastructure markets.  Farhad Farahmand, FFarahmand@TRCSolutions.com - Nonresidential HVAC Economizer;
        Michael Mutmansky, mmutmansky@trcsolutions.com - Nonresidential Lighting – Indoor LPDs & Nonresidential Lighting – Partial-On Occupancy Sensors & Control Credits Occupancy Sensors & Control Credits, Nonresidential Lighting – Outdoor Lighting LPA

      8. Links
      1. http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2016standards/background.html

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