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Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Title 24 2013

California's Building Energy Efficiency Standards are updated on an approximately three-year cycle. The 2013 Standards continue to improve upon the 2008 Standards for new construction of, and additions and alterations to, residential and nonresidential buildings and went into effect on July 1, 2014.

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1. Background

2. Acronyms/Definitions
3. Revisions
4. Business Case
5. Benefits
6. Risks/Issues
7. Success Criteria
8. Companies/Organizations
9. Links

  • In California, energy efficiency standards are set in the state’s Code of Regulations Title 24. The California Energy Commission recently updated its Title 24 Energy Efficiency standards (effective July 1, 2014), requiring businesses to implement technologies that enable highly efficient and zero-net-energy buildings with systems that are integrated with advanced communications capabilities.

  • With increasing scrutiny as environmental concerns intensify, it is imperative that building owners and corporations carefully consider their energy management and monitoring software solution to ensure their solution helps to fully comply with all mandates and regulations which
    include automated demand response, plug load circuit control, daylighting, and multi-level lighting controls

  • Since 1978, the California Energy Commission has helped save Californians $66 billion in electricity and natural gas savings. Historically, California has been at the forefront of building efficiency policy, leading the nation in establishing energy efficiency standards, as well as increasing those standards.

  • Title 24 helps the state meet its ambitious energy and climate goals as directed by several state energy policies. 
    • These include the Loading Order policy, which directs California’s growing demand must first be met with cost-effective energy efficiency, followed by demand response, and then electricity generation from renewable energy resources;
    • Zero Net Energy goal for commercial buildings by 2030 The ZNE goal directs new buildings to use a combination of improved efficiency and distributed renewable energy generation to meet 100 percent of their annual energy need. Since commercial and industrial buildings account for over 40 percent of California energy usage, the building-wide use of controls is vital to meeting the Zero Net goal
    • Governor Brown’s Executive Order on Green Buildings
    • Calgreen the Green Building Standards Code, and 
    • AB32 Global Warming Act, which mandates that California reduces its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 (33% reduction).

2. Acronyms/Definitions
  1. LCC 
  2. OCST - Occupant Controlled Setback Thermostat
  3. TDV - Time Dependent Valuation - The TDV factors are used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures in buildings.  The metric values energy efficiency based on when energy savings occur, reflecting the variations over time in the cost of energy production and delivery.  Based on hourly (or monthly) cost of energy, scaled to rates and climate zone sensitive
    • Updates to all data inputs using recent public data 
      • Natural gas, CO2 price, retail rate forecasts 
      • Wholesale electricity market price shapes 
      • Avoided cost of transmission and distribution (T&D) 
      • Avoided cost of capacity & ancillary services (A/S) 
    •  Methodology improvements 
      • Statewide weather files correlated with hourly load shapes 
      • Inclusion of the impacts of AB 32 Scoping Plan policies 
      • Improved capacity cost methodology 
      • Standardized treatment of avoided costs across utility service territories
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3. Revisions
  • 2013 Title 24 Code Requirements for DR  - The new code requires all commercial buildings over 10,000 square feet to have automated demand response capabilities in their lighting systems regardless of space type.  .

    • Lighting DR controls—for buildings larger than 10,000 square feet, must be capable  of receiving and automatically responding to standards-based messaging, such as OpenADR, to reduce lighting power by at least 15% below the building’s maximum lighting power during peak demand times
    • HVAC DR controls—requires Occupant Controlled Smart Thermostats (OCST); capable of remotely using EMS to increase cooling temperature by 4 degrees or more
    • As DR capable lighting and HVAC controls become baseline requirements in the code, they become ineligible for incentives
  • Opaque envelope U-factors 
  • HVAC and WH Equipment Efficiency 
  • Thermally Driven Cooling 
  • Door and Windows Switch Controls 
  • Fan efficiency 
  • Direct digital Controls 
  • HVAC Economizer Modifications 
  • Elevator Lighting and HVAC Controls 
  • Escalator and Moving Walkway Speed Controls
  • Residential Lighting 
  • Nonresidential Indoor Lighting Power LPDs 
  • Nonresidential Lighting Control and Partial On Occupancy Sensors
  • Nonresidential DR Lighting Controls Requirement: - The requirements for controls have increased in granularity, now requiring either continuous dimming or three intermediate levels between on and off settings while maintaining a uniform level of illuminance. Multi-level controls allow energy cost savings and occupant safety to be achieved in situations where a complete shut-off would be unacceptable – for instance, in aisle ways and open areas in warehouses.

    • Lighting power in buildings > 10,000 ft2 should be ADR capable to reduce lighting load by ≥ 15% of installed lighting load
    • Dimming must be gradual and light levels can not drop below 50% of design illuminance
    • Exceptions:
      • Uninhabited space (e.g., storage) cannot be used to comply with requirement
      • Spaces with a lighting power density of less than 0.5 watts per ft2 square foot cannot be counted towards building’s total lighting power
    • Enforcement: Acceptance Test NA7.6.3
      • Requires functional testing of lighting system to ensure capability of 15% reduction 
      • Allows illuminance measurements or current measurements
    • Triggers
      • Only alterations that change space type, size of space, or increase lighting load trigger code requiring DR control requirements
      • Basic lighting change-outs (Luminaire-Modifications-in-Place) do not trigger

  • Non-Residential HVAC systems with DDC to Zone Level 
    • Requirements - From centralized contact or software point, controls should have capability to +/- 4°F in non-critical zones
      • Critical zone – zone serving a process where the reset could disrupt the process (e.g., data centers, telecom, private branch exchange rooms, labs)
    • Meet Acceptance Testing
    • Features
      • Remote reset of temperatures
      • Disabled mode
      • Manual control mode
      • ADR Shed control mode

  • DR Thermostat Measure – Occupant Controlled Setback Thermostat (OCST)   New to 2014 version of Title 24 is the requirement for all thermostats to have the capability to respond to demand response signals over the Internet through automatic setpoint adjustment. These thermostats must have network access for connectivity with the Smart Grid.
    • Requirements
      • Installing an OCST is mandatory for Non-Res NC/MR, and is compliance option for RES NC/MR
      • Users do not have to participate in DR events
      • Users are not required to have OCSTs communicate with utility company
    • Communicating component
      • Removable OR integrated communication capability 
      • To the extent possible, code is compatible with related efforts underway (NIST, SGIP, Open Smart Grid, etc.)
    • Event Response & Modes
      • Must be price responsive and DR capable
      • Default mode + occupant established modes + override function
      • Default: +/- 4 °F for event; returns to regularly programmed temperature at event end
    • Communications Interfaces
      • Physical: no mandated spec, but should be able to receive 1 or 2 way communication via standards such as ZigBee or WiFi
      • Logical: no mandated spec for information model, but direction provided as “standards based messaging protocols including SEP, OpenADR, SGIP

  • Outdoor lighting LPAs 
  • Outdoor lighting controls, Including Bi-level controls 
  • HPAD/DCS Minimize Duct Losses 
  • Residential High Performance Walls 
  • Tankless Water Heaters 
  • Residential HVAC Field Verification and Diagnosis 
  • Residential ACM 
  • Nonresidential ACM 
  • PV Credit 
  • Whole House Fan Credit 
  • Cal Green
4. Business Case
  • With increasing scrutiny as environmental concerns intensify, it is imperative that building owners and corporations carefully consider their energy management and monitoring software solution to ensure their solution helps to fully comply with all mandates and regulations which
    • automated demand response, 
    • plug load circuit control, 
    • daylighting, and multi-level lighting controls.

5. Benefits
  • The new Title 24 standards introduce the requirements for occupant sensors and photosensors, making more use of occupant sensing and natural lights to lower energy consumption. Occupant sensing control is the most common and effective strategy, and when used alone reduces energy waste and costs by 35%-45%. Combined with photosensor control and multi-level lighting controls, an organization can realize up to 70% in energy cost savings.

6. Risks/Issues
  • Legacy Systems - While standalone legacy lighting systems try to add on capabilities, these systems will no longer be sufficient to meet building codes. More advanced building networking technology built from day one that incorporates occupant sensing control, photosensor control, multi-level lighting control, and now demand response in the design of the energy management system is capable of tackling new energy cost saving opportunities.

7. Success Criteria
  1. A well-designed, tightly integrated energy management system is a valuable ally to an organization’s efforts to comply with energy efficiency standards
  2. As continued investment toward highly efficient, fully connected buildings is increasing important, organizations must ensure demand responsive capability is embedded in their energy management and monitoring system, and this capability includes both lighting and HVAC controls.
  3. Increasingly, energy management and monitoring solutions are incorporating plug load control. It’s important that facilities professionals who use smart energy management technology for lighting and HVAC controls leverage the solution’s capability to reduce plug loads and better manage energy usage.

8. Companies/Organizations
  1. CEC - California Energy Commission - 
  2. Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc.  -  San Francisco-based consulting firm since 1989. Experienced in linking technical-economic analysis to policy decision-making and public process.  E3 worked on the 2005 and 2008 Title 24 TDV
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9. Links

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