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OwnerJuly 2015 to presentEl Cerrito

Finding best available technologies for meeting energy needs today and tomorrow: energy efficiency, demand response,, solar, wind, electric vehicles, biofuels and smart grid. It’s all the innovations that make the energy we use more secure, clean, and affordable. The energy world's best hopes lie in what's happening in the digital realm, especially in data analytics.

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Transmission

Transmission Domain - The National Institute of Standards and Technology released a common semantic model for the Smart Grid in June 2009 - NIST worked with the appropriate standards development organizations to form a common representation of information models for the smart grid
Back to Smart Energy


H. Transmission Planning
wednesday, march 22, 2017
Renewable energy resources such as wind in the high plains and concentrated solar in the dessert southwest require multi-billion-dollar investments in extra-high voltage transmission extending across state lines.



G. Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS)
wednesday, march 22, 2017
A system composed of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy. It enhances controllability and increase power transfer capability of the network and is generally a power electronics-based device.



F. High Voltage DC Transmission (HVDC)
wednesday, march 22, 2017
For long-distance distribution, HVDC systems are less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses than the traditional AC lines.


E. Phase Synchronizer
TUESDAY, MARCH 27, 2012
A utility frequency technology that has the potential to change the economics of power delivery by allowing increased power flow over existing lines up to a line's dynamic limit instead of to its worst case limit.


D. Wide Area Situational Awareness
wednesday, march 22, 2017
The Great Northeast Blackout could have been avoided by better communication across system operators


C. Transmissions Operations Overview
thursday, july 7, 2011
We are using World War II era analog technology to power a network and devices that are increasingly digitized.


B. Improved Circuit Ratings
monday, july 11, 2011
The thermal expansion in transmission lines is still limited by obsolete, slow electro-mechanical controls that seriously constrain the amount of electricity that each line can carry.


A. Super Grids
TUESDAY, MARCH 8, 2011
Imagine a virtually unlimited supply of electrical power from solar-energy systems and power lines that could transmit this electricity from the deserts of the southwest to the Eastern Seaboard at nearly 100 percent



Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Hydroelectric Uprating

Retrofitting dams to provide more generation at peak times is one of the most immediate, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable means of developing additional electric power.

Updated Aug 2014 - Next Steps



Navigate this Report
Back to Supply Shifting 
1. Background
2. Acronyms/Definitions
3. Business Case
4. Benefits
5. Risks/Issues
6. Next Steps
7. Companies
8. Links

Sep 23, 2013 Update : Added HR 267 and HR 678 - In August, President Obama signed into law HR 267, the Hydropower Regulatory 8Efficiency Act, and HR 678, the Bureau of Reclamation Small Conduit Hydropower Development and Rural Jobs Act. The newly enacted laws will relieve some of the regulatory constraints that have impeded the development of small scale hydropower production in recent years.

1.Background
  • Hydroelectric dams with large reservoirs can also be operated to provide peak generation at times of peak demand. Water is stored in the reservoir during periods of low demand and released through the plant when demand is higher. The net effect is the same as pumped storage, but without the pumping loss. Depending on the reservoir capacity the plant can provide daily, weekly, or seasonal load following.

  • Many existing hydroelectric dams are fairly old (for example, the Hoover Dam was built in the 1930s), and their original design predated the newer intermittent power sources such as wind and solar by decades. A hydroelectric dam originally built to provide base load power will have its generators sized according to the average flow of water into the reservoir.

  • Hydropower-producing facilities represent only a fraction of the infrastructure development that has taken place on US waterways. In contrast to the roughly 2,500 dams that provide 78 gigawatts (GW) of conventional and 22 GW of pumped-storage hydropower, the United States has more than 80,000 non-powered dams (NPDs)—dams that do not produce electricity—providing a variety of services ranging from water supply to inland navigation


2. Acronyms/Definitions
  1. Adverse Hydro - Water conditions limiting the production of hydroelectric power. In years having below-normal levels of rain and snow, and in seasons having less-than-usual runoff from mountain snow pack, there is then less water available for hydro energy production.

  2. Average Hydro - Rain, snow and runoff conditions that provide water for hydroelectric generation equal to the most commonly occurring levels. Average hydro usually is a mean indicating the levels experienced most often in a 104-year period.

  3. Discharge – The volume of water released. The actual output of energy at a dam is determined by the discharge and the head.
  4. FPA - Federal Power Act

  5. Head - The vertical distance the water falls created by the dam height. The head produces water pressure, and the greater the head, the greater the pressure to drive turbines. This pressure is measured in pounds per square inch. More head or faster flowing water means more power.

  6. HR 267 -  Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 - Changes select Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulations governing project licensing to make it easier to develop smaller output hydropower stations. Signed into law Aug 2013. FERC issues licenses and regulates hydroelectric facilities under the Federal Power Act. HR 267 amended current law to provide for adjustments in three classes of small hydropower facilities.
    1. HR 267 changed current law to allow FERC in its discretion to exempt small hydroelectric facilities with a generating capacity of 10 MW or less from FERC's licensing requirements. Under the prior law, only projects of up to 5 MW were exempt. 
    2. The new law provides a process by which FERC shall grant an exemption for "qualifying conduit hydropower facilities" (i.e., manmade water conveyances such as tunnels or canals operated for the distribution of water for agricultural or other purposes) with an installed capacity of 5 MW.
    3. The law amends current law to increase the scope of the Commission's discretionary exemption from 15 MW to 40 MW for small conduit hydropower facilities. Notably, these projects will still be subject to state and federal fish and wildlife terms and conditions pursuant to section 30(c) of the Federal Power Act. In contrast, the "qualifying conduit hydropower facilities" will not be subject to fish and wildlife terms and conditions pursuant to section 30(c).
    4. The law directed the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to investigate the feasibility of a two-year licensing process for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed loop pumped storage projects, develop criteria identifying projects that may be appropriate for a two-year process, and develop and implement pilot projects to test a two-year process, if practicable. 
    5. On January 6, 2014, the Commission solicited proposals from potential applicants to test such a licensing process, and defined the minimum criteria for projects that may be appropriate for licensing within a two-year process  (See Next Steps Below)
    The bill also allows FERC to extend the period of a preliminary permit once for not more than two additional years beyond the three years currently permitted, for a total of five years, to allow a permit holder enough time to develop and file a license application.

  7. HR 678 - Bureau of Reclamation Small Conduit Hydropower Development and Rural Jobs Act - - Authorizes Bureau of Reclamation conduit facilities for hydropower development under Federal Reclamation law. Signed into law Aug 2013

    A "conduit" is defined as a tunnel, canal, pipeline, aqueduct, flume, ditch, or similar manmade water conveyance.

    This bill changes federal regulations to foster the development of small conduit hydropower projects. Notably, HR 678 allows the Bureau of Reclamation to apply its categorical exclusion process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) to certain small conduit hydropower development, excluding siting of associated transmission facilities on Federal lands. In addition, it calls for first offering leases of power privilege to an irrigation district or water users association that operates the applicable transferred conduit or that receives water from the applicable reserved conduit. If the irrigation district or water users association declines a lease of power privilege, the lease of power privilege will be offered to other parties. Thus, the newly passed legislation requires that preference is offered to water user organizations for the development of canal and conduit hydropower under the lease of power privilege process. HR 678 also designates the Power Resources Office of the Bureau of Reclamation as the lead office of small conduit hydropower permitting.

  8. H.R. 5892 - The Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act - This bipartisan bill (passed house in July 2012 by a vote of 372-0) – would facilitate the development of small hydropower and conduit projects and direct the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to study the feasibility of a streamlined two-year permitting process. Their legislation now moves to the Senate.

    The legislation would exempt from federal licensing requirements the nation's 1,100-plus hydro projects that aren't operated by the federal government and that generate less than 10 megawatts of electricity; the current exemption is limited to projects that generate less than 5 megawatts.

  9. H.R. 6247: Saving Our Dams and New Hydropower Development and Jobs Act of 2012  - Legislation introduced in August 2012 would strip federal funding from environmental groups that have challenged hydropower facilities in court over the past decade. The bill further would block federal money from being used to study or undertake dam removals, save for the rare occasion when Congress has authorized the action.

    "This bill would ... help eliminate government roadblocks and frivolous litigation that stifle development," Rep. Doc Hastings, R-Wash., said in a statement when he introduced it. With little time left in a Congress now mostly focused on campaign season, and with the 17-page Hastings bill poisonous to prominent environmental groups, the legislation appears fated for now to serve primarily as debate provocation.

  10. Hydrokinetic Projects - Produce power from moving water without the use of a dam, and include wave energy systems and in-stream turbines, which can capture the energy from tidal flows or the flow of a river. The first federally licensed in-stream hydrokinetic power project in the United States began operating commercially on August 20 on the Mississippi River in Hastings, Minnesota. The Hastings project, an in-stream turbine from Hydro Green Energy, captures the flow from the output channel of an existing hydropower dam. The turbine, anchored downstream from the dam on a tethered barge, has a nameplate capacity of 100 kilowatts, and an expected output of about 35 kilowatts. After approval of the project by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) last December, the turbine was quickly installed on the barge and has been undergoing testing since mid-February. In June, the turbine was evaluated for its impact on fish in the river, and an environmental research firm found that 97.5% of fish passing through the turbine survived the journey.

  11. Impulse Turbine - A horizontal or vertical wheel that uses the kinetic energy of water striking its buckets or blades to cause rotation. The wheel is covered by a housing and the buckets or blades are shaped so they turn the flow of water about 170 degrees inside the housing. After turning the blades or buckets, the water falls to the bottom of the wheel housing and flows out.

  12. Low-Head Dam - One with a water drop of less than 65 feet and a generating capacity less than 15,000 kW. Large, high-head dams can produce more power at lower costs than low-head dams, but construction of large dams may be limited by lack of suitable sites, by environmental considerations, or by economic conditions. In contrast, there are many existing small dams and drops in elevation along canals where small generating plants could be installed. New low-head dams could be built to increase output as well. The key to the usefulness of such units is their ability to generate power near where it is needed, reducing the power inevitably lost during transmission.

  13. NHAAP - National Hydropower Asset Assessment Program - The NHAAP Baseline Database describes the development and construction of the baseline engineering and geospatial information systems and integrated data sets that characterize the hydropower generation inventory in the United States. The NHAAP baseline database is designed to assess and analyze the existing national hydropower infrastructure and provide historical data to study and plan for future potential hydropower upgrades, as well as potential increases in the U.S. hydropower generation.

  14. NHD - National Hydrography Dataset - Provides a foundation for rigorous estimates of NPD potential for production for the entire country.

  15. NPD - Non-Powered Dam - Dams that do not produce electricity - The United States has more than 80,000 NPDs providing a variety of services ranging from water supply to inland navigation. Importantly, many of the monetary costs and ;environmental impacts of dam construction have already been incurred at NPDs, so adding power to the existing dam structure can often be achieved at lower cost, with less risk, and in a shorter time-frame than development requiring new dam construction.

  16. Penstock - The pipe that carries the water from the reservoir to the turbine.

  17. Rated Capacity – The capacity which a hydro generator can deliver without exceeding mechanical safety factors or a nominal temperature rise. In general this is also the nameplate rating except where turbine power under maximum head is insufficient to deliver the nameplate rating of the generator.

  18. Reaction Turbine - A horizontal or vertical wheel that operates with the wheel completely submerged a feature which reduces turbulence. In theory, the reaction turbine works like a rotating lawn sprinkler where water at a central point is under pressure and escapes from the ends of the blades, causing rotation. Reaction turbines are the type most widely used.

  19. Stator – Stationary coil on the generator. When coils of wire on the rotor. sweep past, electricity is produced.

Dam Height Definitions



3. Business Case
  • As recently as 2005, Hydropower provided about 96% of the renewable energy in the United States. Uprating an existing dam with additional generators increases its peak power output capacity, thereby increasing its capacity to operate as a virtual grid energy storage unit. The United States Bureau of Reclamation reports an investment cost of $69 per kilowatt capacity to uprate an existing dam compared to more than $400 per kilowatt for oil-fired peaking generators.

  • While an uprated hydroelectric dam does not directly store excess energy from other generating units, it behaves equivalently by accumulating its own fuel - incoming river water - during periods of high output from other generating units. Functioning as a virtual grid storage unit in this way, the uprated dam is one of the most efficient forms of energy storage, because it has no pumping losses to fill its reservoir. A dam which impounds a large reservoir can store and release a correspondingly large amount of energy, by raising and lowering its reservoir level a few meters.

  • Linking wind power and hydropower can add to the Nation’s supply of electrical energy. Large wind machines can be tied to existing hydroelectric power plants. Wind power can be used, when the wind is blowing, to reduce demands on hydropower. That would allow dams to save their water for later release to generate power in peak periods.

  • Adding power to U.S. NPDs has the potential to add up to 12 GW (12,000 megawatts or MW) of new renewable capacity—a potential equivalent to increasing the size of the existing conventional hydropower fleet by 15%. A majority of this potential is concentrated in just 100 NPDs, which could contribute approximately 8 GW of clean, reliable hydropower; the top 10 facilities alone could add up to 3 GW of new hydropower. Eighty-one of the 100 top NPDs are U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) facilities, many of which, including all of the top 10, are navigation locks on the Ohio River, Mississippi River, Alabama River, and Arkansas River, as well as their major tributaries. 



4. Benefits
  • Lower Cost - The uprating of existing hydroelectric generator and turbine units at power plants is one of the most immediate, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable means of developing additional electric power. Since 1978, Reclamation has pursued an aggressive uprating program which has added more than 1,600,000 kW to Reclamation's capacity at an average cost of $69 per kilowatt. This compares to an average cost for providing new peaking capacity through oil-fired generators of more than $400 per kilowatt. Reclamation's uprating program has essentially provided the equivalent of another major hydroelectric facility of the approximate magnitude of Hoover Dam and Powerplant at a fraction of the cost and impact on the environment when compared to any other means of providing new generation capacity.

  • Reduced Environmentl Impact - Many of the monetary costs and environmental impacts of dam construction have already been incurred at NPDs, so adding power to the existing dam structure can often be achieved at lower cost, with less risk, and in a shorter time-frame than development requiring new dam construction. The abundance, cost, and environmental favorability of NPDs, combined with the reliability and predictability of hydropower, make these dams a highly  attractive source for expanding the nation’s renewable energy supply.

  • Peaking - Since hydroelectric generators can be started or stopped almost instantly, hydropower is more responsive than most other energy sources for meeting peak demands. Water can be stored overnight in a reservoir until needed during the day, and then released through turbines to generate power to help supply the peakload demand. This mixing of power sources offers a utility company the flexibility to operate steam plants most efficiently as base plants while meeting peak needs with the help of hydropower. This technique can help ensure reliable supplies and may help eliminate brownouts and blackouts caused by partial or total power failures.

  • Dispatchability - Nuclear and fossil fuel plants are not efficient for producing power for the short periods of increased demand during peak periods. Their operational requirements and their long startup times make them more efficient for meeting baseload needs. Unfortunately, while traditional gas peaking plants can react quickly, even they generally need 15 minutes or more to ramp up their power output.

  • Energy Management - load following, and frequency control helps protect against system failures that could lead to the damage of equipment and even brown or blackouts.

  • Complements Existing Renewable Portfolio - There is major potential found in the Ohio, Upper and Lower Mississippi, and Arkansas White-Red regions. Therefore, new NPD development can help diversify the geographic distribution of national hydropower investment. More importantly, hydropower is found to be a complementary energy source with other renewables. While more wind and solar power potentials are found in the western and southwestern United States, hydropower development through NPDs can provide clean renewables for other regions in the nation.



5. Risks/Issues
  • Environmental Impact - Increased water surge and decreased water quality.
  • Intermittency - Some hydroelectric units operate intermittently, when sufficient water flows. Hydroelectric plants also occasionally shut down because of environmental restrictions.
  • Fisheries - Safe fish passage

6. Next Steps
  • In August, 2014, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved a pilot to test a two-year licensing process for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects. The 5 MW project proposed by Free Flow Power Project 92 (FFP) will be located at the Kentucky River Authority's existing Lock and Dam No. 11 on the Kentucky River.

    In compliance with the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013, FERC investigated the feasibility of a two-year licensing process, developed criteria for identifying projects that may be appropriate for the process, and developed the pilot project.

    In addition to approving FFP's request to test a two-year process, the approval letter issued by the Office of Energy Projects requests that the developer conduct studies relating to project hydraulics, water quality, aquatic habitat, fish entrainment and survival, cultural resources, and rare, threatened, and endangered species.


7. Companies/ Organizations
  • Rentricity - New York, NY- Instead, a water agency will install a micro-hydrokinetic power system from Rentricity in the Los Angeles rivier that will effectively generate 225 kilowatts of electricity from pressurized water flows controlled by the agency. Specifications for L.A.'s Flow-to-Wire system for L.A. are being written and could be complete in nine months to a year. Another 30-kilowatt system is being designed for a municipal water agency near Pittsburgh.

    The key is that man-made pressurized water flows are not going away. Water agencies – along with heavy-duty private sector water consumers like oil refineries and agribusiness – have to pressurize water to purify it or move it. Approximately 19 percent of the electric power in the state of California is consumed in processing and moving water. To get water to a particular elevation, for instance, a water agency might have to pressurize water to 67 pounds per square inch. Once the water gets to the desired location, a large percentage of that pressure likely dissipates. Rentricity essentially wants to capture that pressure to create electricity before it disappears.

    Worldwide, Rentricity estimates that 25,000 potential sites for micro hydro exist. Potentially, the market for micro-hydro equipment could amount to $30 billion. The company already has six other proposals in the pipeline.

  • The Low Impact Hydropower Institute (LIHI) - Wartburg, TN - A non-profit 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to reducing the impacts of hydropower generation through the certification of hydropower projects that have avoided or reduced their environmental impacts pursuant to the Low Impact Hydropower Institute’s criteria.




8. Links
  1. Hoover Uprating Project

  2. DOE An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States - analyzes more than 54,000 specific sites that could be developed to generate power. Those with the most potential were found at lock and dam facilities on the Ohio, Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas Rivers – facilities owned by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. (You can access an interactive map showing all of the sites identified here.)

Sunday, August 17, 2014

Resources

Navigate this Report
Back to Smart Energy

1. Smart Energy Overview
2. News & Opinion
3. Industry & Consortia
4. Government & Regulation
5. Conferences


1. Smart Energy Overview
  1. Acronyms - From California Energy Commission
  2. Glossary - Energy terms and definitions as used in EIA data, reports, presentations, and survey forms.
  3. Glossary of Terms - NERC
  4. Coincident has developed an interactive web application to help users discover and explore advanced metering projects occurring around the world. Presently in a free beta period with coverage maps for the United States and Canada.
  5. Interactive Energy Simulations and Lesson Plans - TCIPG: Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure for the Power Grid
  6. SGIC - Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse - In July 2009, Secretary Chu announced  that the DOE has begun the development of a Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse. The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) was selected as the winner of the $1.3 million initiative to develop and maintain the Clearinghouse website, which will be charged with answering questions from the public and distributing information about smart grid initiatives occurring nationwide.
  7. Smart Grid: A Beginner's Guide by NIST - A readable and jargon-free rundown on the basics of smart grid and standards. No lengthy descriptions of synchrophasor technology or meter data management, just the nuts and bolts of what smart grid is and why standards are such a key part of it.
  8. The Advanced Smart Grid by Andres Carvallo and John Cooper (Artech House, 2011)
    Far and away the best book yet about the smart grid. Just the right blend between theory and practice. I especially appreciate the way the authors talk not just about what smart grid is today, but also about what it could and should be tomorrow. And about why and how to start with a solid foundation capable of carrying the weight of those larger ambitions. Must reading.
    Buy "The Advanced Smart Grid" at Amazon.com >>

2. News & Opinion
  1. AOL Energy - Smart Grid
  2. CIO and Smart Grid Master - Blog by Andres Carvallo, former Austin Energy CIO , architect of one of the first smart grids in the U.S. and the man who coined the term “the smart grid” itself.  Recently became Chief Strategy Officer of  Grid Net, the startup that’s been advocating a smart grid based on the wireless standard WiMAX
  3. Electric Light and Power - Smart Grid News
  4. eMeter - Smart Grid Watch Blog
  5. European Energy Review
  6. Gigaom (Earth2Tech) - Cleantech
  7. Green Tech Media 
    1. Greentechgrid 
    2. Enterprise (CARBON MANAGEMENT,   ENERGY EFFICIENCY,  GREEN IT,  GREEN BUILDING,  CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY
    3. GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN)
    1. Intelligent Utility Magazine -
    2. Pike Research Blog
    3. Smart Grid News Founded by Jesse Berst, a smart grid thought leader with a high-level focus on setting the stage for the “electricity economy” (his forthcoming book "Electronomics" is due to drop later this year). Berst is the Managing Director of GlobalSmartEnergy (GSE), a research and consulting firm. Jesse’s Smart Grid News is a trusted resource for the industry, and he has advised organizations such as Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy, the GridWise Alliance, NETL and many others.
    4. NTS Smart Grid Blog - Daily Smart Grid article digest - NTS (NASDAQ: NTSC) provides companies and government organizations throughout the world with process and product compliance services, testing services, engineering services and program management support.
    5. Smart Grid Careers - Browse jobs by category
    6. Smart Grid Opinions - Their goal is to empower the stakeholders in the smart grid space by providing content that has traditionally been available only thorough premium market reports.
    7. Smart Grid Security Blog - Drawing upon lessons from the development of security best practices (and mistakes) from the Internet and telecom networks, this blog tracks the thinking on how to best secure the emerging Smart Grid and micro grid by Andy Bochman, Frequent speaker, writer and advisor on topics at the intersection of grid modernization, renewables, energy efficiency and cyber security.
    8. Smart Grid Sherpa - DNV KEMA
    9. The Energy Collective - An independent, moderated community of professionals focused on the complex challenges of meeting the world's energy needs sustainab
    10. Transmission & Distribution World xx

    3. Industry & Consortia
    1. ASHRAE - The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers advances technology to serve humanity and promote a sustainable world.
    2. BACnet - Standard Project Committee (SPC) and Analysis Program BACnet - A Data Communication Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks. Developed under the auspices of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), BACnet is an American national standard, a European standard, a national standard in more than 30 countries, and an ISO global standard. The protocol is supported and maintained by ASHRAE Standing Standard Project Committee 135 whose members have created and provided the content for this Website.
    3. CABA - Continental Automated Building Association - A not-for-profit industry association that promotes advanced technologies for the automation of homes and buildings in North America. 
    4. DRSG - Demand Response and Smart Grid Coalition - Trade association for companies that provide products and services in the areas of demand response, smart meters and smart grid technologies. (Aka DRAM) 
    5. IEEE - the world's largest technical professional association, launched the IEEE Smart Grid Porta, in January 2010.  It is an integrated gateway designed to provide smart grid intelligence, education and news from IEEE and other expert sources. The Web Portal is designed for manufacturers, policymakers, educators, academics, governments, engineers, computer scientists, researchers and other stakeholders in the power and energy, information technology (IT), and communications industries.
    6. EPRI - The Electric Power Research Institute - Conducts research and development on technology, operations and the environment for the global electric power sector. EPRI, a non-profit organization, brings together its members, the institute’s scientists and engineers, along with experts from academia, industry and other research centers to meet challenges in electricity generation, delivery and use. 
    7. European Union's SmartGrid initiative. The SmartGrid European Technology Platform for Electricity Networks of the Future began its work in 2005. Its aim was to formulate and promote a vision for the development of European electricity networks looking towards 2020 and beyond. 
    8. Galvin Electricity Initiative - Sponsored by Robert Galvin (former CEO of Motorola), this landmark Initiative, which began in March 2005, seeks to define and achieve the Perfect Power System, a consumer-focused electric energy system that never fails.
    9. Gridwise Alliance -A consortium of public and private stakeholders who are aligned around a shared vision of an electric system that integrates the infrastructure, processes, devices, information and market structure so that energy can be generated, distributed, and consumed more efficiently and cost effectively; thereby achieving a more resilient, secure and reliable energy system.
    10. GWAC - Gridwise Architecture Council - A team of industry leaders who are shaping the guiding principles, or architecture, of a highly intelligent and interactive electric system—one ripe with decision-making information exchange and market-based opportunities. This architecture will provide guidelines for interaction between participants and interoperability between technologies and systems. The Council is neither a design team, nor a standards making body. Their role is to help identify areas for standardization that allow significant levels of interoperation between system components. 
    11. IntelliGrid™ This site contains the documentation associated with the IntelliGrid Architecture Project. The IntelliGrid Architecture is a world-wide and industry-wide project to develop the infrastructures necessary to support the next generation of energy conversion, delivery and end-use systems.
    12. LonMark International -A global membership organization created to promote and advance the business of efficient and effective integration of open, multi-vendor control systems utilizing ANSI/CEA 709.1 and related standards 
    13. OASIS/Obix (Open Building Exchange) - The purpose of oBIX (open Building Information Exchange) is to enable the mechanical and electrical control systems in buildings to communicate with enterprise applications, and to provide a platform for developing new classes of applications that integrate control systems with other enterprise functions. Enterprise functions include processes such as Human Resources, Finance, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and Manufacturing
    14. PLMA - Peak Load Management Alliance - A diverse association of leading energy professionals dedicated to developing and promoting consumer participation in electricity markets around the world using load management.
    15. Solar Electric Power Association - Resources 
    16. UCA International Users Group
      (Open Smart Grid User Group)
      (Open AMI User Group) A not-for-profit corporation focused on assisting users and vendors in the deployment of standards for real-time applications for several industries with related requirements. The Users Group does not write standards, however works closely with those bodies that have primary responsibility for the completion of standards (notably IEC TC 57: Power Systems Management and Associated Information Exchange). Shared Documents


    4. Government & Regulation
    1. CAISO - The California ISO is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation charged with operating the majority of California’s high-voltage wholesale power grid. Balancing the demand for electricity with an equal supply of megawatts, the ISO is the impartial link between power plants and the utilities that serve more than 30 million consumers. The ISO provides equal access to the grid for all qualified users and strategically plans for the transmission needs of this vital infrastructure. 
    2. California Air Resources Board - ARB Rulemaking Activity in 2011 The CARB is tasked with implementing AB32, a California State Law that fights climate change by establishing a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from all sources throughout the state
    3. California Energy Commission's (CEC) - Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER). 
    4. California Energy Commission - 
      1. Calendar
      2. Documents, presentations and meeting videos for  2011 IEPR (Integrated Energy Policy Report) 
      3. Documents, presentations and meeting videos for Emerging Renewables Program
      4. Documents, presentations and meeting videos for Phase II on Appliance Efficiency Regulations Rulemaking - Battery Chargers, Self Contained Lighting Controls (Prerule making)
      5. Documents, presentations and meeting videos for 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards
      6. Documents, presentations and meeting videos for RPS - (Renewable Portfolio Standards)
      7. Documents, presentations and meeting videos for AB 1103 Commercial Building Energy Use Disclosure Program
    5. CPUC – California Public Utilities Commission
      1. Smart Grid
      2. California Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS)
      3. Demand Response
      4. Distributed Generation in California
      5. Videos of Public Meetings
    6. DOE - Smart Grid Documents 
    7. Lawrence Berkeley Lab - Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) The main objective of the Center is to develop, prioritize, conduct, and disseminate multiinstitutional research that develops broad knowledge to facilitate DR. The Center research agenda will initially cover four major DR research categories
      • Policies, programs, and tariffs
      • Utility markets, technology, and systems
      • Customer and end-use technology and systems
      • Consumer and institutional behavior
    8. NETL -National Energy Technology Laboratory - Modern Grid Strategy (MGS) seeks to accelerate the modernization of our nation’s electricity grid. To accomplish this, MGS is fostering the development of a common, national vision among grid stakeholders. MGS is also working toward a framework that enables utilities, vendors, consumers, researchers and other stakeholders to form partnerships and overcome barriers. Finally, MGS supports demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid.
    9. NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology - Smart Grid - In 2007, Congress declared in the Energy Independence Act (EISA) that modernizing the grid is national policy. EISA requires FERC, once sufficient consensus has been achieved through a process managed by the (NIST), to adopt standards and protocols necessary to ensure Smart Grid functionality and interoperability in the interstate transmission of electric power and in regional and wholesale
      markets. 
      1. NIST SGIP  - The Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP) engages stakeholders from the entire Smart Grid Community in a participatory public process to identify applicable standards, gaps in currently available standards, and priorities for new standardization activities for the evolving Smart Grid. Thus, the SGIP supports NIST in fulfilling its responsibilities under the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act

        The latest information on SGIP activities, including upcoming meetings and events, is available at the SGIP web site. Link to the web site here. The latest SGIP newsletter, as well as past editions, is posted here.
      2. NIST - Cyber Security Working Group - One of the most comprehensive resource so far is the collection of documents in the NIST CSCTG Twiki
    10. PNL - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  - Teamed up with regional utilities and industry partners in the year-long Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Demonstration Project to test the notion that smart grid technologies and consumers can play an active role in managing the grid. The project, funded primarily by the Department of Energy, involved homeowners in two separate studies to test demand-response concepts and technologies designed to maximize the electric grid's ability to provide reliable, affordable and clean energy.

    5. Conferences
    1. Connectivityweek 2012 - Santa Clara, CA, May 20-24, 2012 - Select a track and session, presentations will be listed under the Presentation Files heading.
    2. Gridweek 2012 - Washington DC, October 2-4, 2011 - Click on the links below for detailed agenda of sessions as well as PDF presentations from the sessions.

    Thursday, August 7, 2014

    Title 24 2016 - Residential

    California's Building Energy Efficiency Standards are updated on an approximately three-year cycle. The 2013 Standards continue to improve upon the 2008 Standards for new construction of, and additions and alterations to, residential and nonresidential buildings and went into effect on July 1, 2014. 2016 revisions are under discussion now and are scheduled to take effect Jan 1, 2017

    Source: California Energy Commission

    Navigate this Report
    Back to Energy Efficiency Index
    1. Background

    2. Acronyms/Definitions
    3. Proposed Revisions - Residential
    4. Benefits
    5. Risks/Issues
    6. Success Criteria
    7. Companies/Organizations
    8. Links

    1.Background
    • Policy Drivers
      • Governor's “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” 
      • Zero Net Energy: Residential by 2020 and Nonresidential by 2030 
      • CARB Climate Change Scoping Plan 
      • California Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan

    • 2016 Standards Update Process
      • April 4, 2014 - CBIA/CEC Standards Forum
      • April – May 2014 - IOU CASE Stakeholder Meetings
      • May – Aug 2014 - CEC Staff Public Workshops
      • November 2014 - Draft 2016 Standards
      • January 2015 - Release 45-day Language
      • April 2015 - Release 15-Day Language
      • May 2015 - Adoption at CEC Business Meeting
      • January 1, 2017 - Effective Date of the Standards

    2. Acronyms/Definitions
    1. ACM - Alternate Calculation Method - California Building Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings allow compliance by either a prescriptive or performance method. Performance compliance uses computer modeling software to trade off efficiency measures. For example, to allow more windows, the designer will specify more efficient windows, or to allow more west-facing windows they will install a more efficient cooling system. Computer performance compliance is typically the most popular compliance method because of the flexibility it provides in the building design.

    2. B/C - Benefit to Cost Ratio - Important metric in determining revisions to Title 24

    3. CASE - Codes And Standards Enhancement  - Through CASE Reports, the IOUs will provide the California Energy Commission with the technical and cost-effectiveness information required to make informed judgments on proposed standards for promising energy efficiency design practices and technologies. Stakeholder Meetings provide an opportunity for stakeholders to help inform the development of these codes change proposals. The IOUs encourage participation in this step of the process through the submission of data— both primary sources and references to existing data, e.g., reports, spreadsheets, etc.

    4. CZ - Climate Zone - 16 zones in California used by the California Energy Commission to determine which energy efficiency measures are appropriate in which environment.  In more moderate climates along the coast, certain energy efficiency investments may not be economic.

      California Climate Zones

      1. DCS - Ducts in Conditioned Spaces
      2. HPA - High Performance Attic

      3. J-Curve - Goal is to maximize efficiency with no increase in total life cycle cost (LCC)
        Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014


      4. LCC - Life Cycle Costs - The legislation authorizing Title 24 requires “The standards adopted or revised pursuant to subdivisions shall be cost-effective when taken in their entirety and when amortized over the economic life of the structure compared with historic practice. When determining cost-effectiveness, the commission shall consider the value of the water or energy saved, impact on product efficacy for the consumer, and the life cycle cost of complying with the standard.”
        • Discounted cash flows for costs and benefits
        • Accounts for maintenance costs/benefits 
        • Appropriate discount rates and life of measures - 30 years for residential measures

        The Annual LCC Method: Change in LCC =  Change in Initial Cost of Construction -  Present Value of Electricity Cost Savings -  Present Value of Gas Cost Savings ΔLCC = ΔConstruction –PV(Electricity) – PV(Gas)  (Discount Rate: 3% Life Cycle: 15 and 30 years)

      5. LPA - Lighting Power Allowance - The maximum allowable lighting density permitted by the code. It is expressed in watts per square foot for a given occupancy/space type

      6. LPD -  Lighting Power Density - Technically represents the load of any lighting equipment in any defined area, or the watts per square foot of the lighting equipment. However, in the lighting industry it is often associated with the lighting power allowance (LPA) permitted by the building energy code in question.

      7. TDV - Time Dependent Valuation - The TDV factors are used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures in buildings.  The metric values energy efficiency based on when energy savings occur, reflecting the variations over time in the cost of energy production and delivery.  Based on hourly (or monthly) cost of energy, scaled to rates and climate zone sensitive 

        • Value of gas and electricity changes depending on the season and the time of day
        •  8,760 TDV multipliers for each hour of the year 
        • Favors measures that save energy during high demand periods


      3. Proposed Revisions - Residential
      • TDV
        • 1. Develop hourly 15-year and 30-year forecasts of avoided cost of energy 
          • Residential and Nonresidential Electricity Costs 
          • Residential and Nonresidential Natural Gas Costs 
          • Residential and Nonresidential Propane Costs 
        • 2.  Calculate net present value (NPV) of cost stream  - 3% real discount rate (at 2% inflation = 5% nominal) 
        • 3.  Convert NPV costs ($/unit energy) into TDV energy factors (kWh/kBtu for electricity)
        • Incorporate assumptions from the 2013 Integrated Energy Report (IEPR
          • Natural gas cost to electric generators 
          • Marginal energy costs under various demand and generation scenarios 
          • GHG costs 
          • Electric and natural gas rate forecasts 
        •  Update hourly electric marginal cost of energy 
        •  Incorporate Effective Load Carrying Capability (ELCC) method for electric generation capacity allocation factors
        • Update electric T&D marginal costs

      • Residential Lighting
        • High efficacy lighting has been cost effective since the 2005 Standards
        • Adoption of high efficacy lighting is still low
        • Energy savings from low efficacy lighting with controls is far less than the savings from high efficacy lighting
        • Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
          June 24, 2014
          • 81% of installed watts are low efficacy
          • 62% of installed lamps are low efficacy
          • 70% of sockets are low efficacy

        • Barriers to High Efficacy Lighting
          • Quality of high efficacy sources - Color quality is a common complaint for CFLs
          • Limited high efficacy fixture choices
          • Inflexible and unfamiliar sources – GU-24 or pin-base CFL – Integral LED luminaires
          • Higher costs for currently defined high efficacy luminaires efficacy luminaires – Higher costs for luminaires – Higher costs for replacement lamps - Higher costs for replacement lamps

        • Proposed Code Change: Simplify the Residential Lighting Standard
          • Require High Efficacy Residential Lighting Standards
             – In all room types
            – Eliminate low efficacy allowances with controls
          • Relax High Efficacy Definition  - Allow traditional (e g screw Allow traditional (e.g. screw-base) socket types but only if base) socket types, but only if installed with high quality, high efficacy, JA-8 source
          • All hardwired or GU-24 options in Table 150.0-A remain
          • Recessed Downlights only luminaire type not allowed to use JA-8 compliant screw base lamps
            – JA8 dedicated luminaire, or use quick-connect or Zhaga base
          • Maintain Existing Control Requirements
            – At least one luminaire in Bathrooms, Laundry, Utility Rooms, and Garages must be controlled by vacancy sensor
            – Dimmers or vacancy sensors required for screw-base LED fixtures in all room types other than Kitchens Bathrooms fixtures in all room types other than Kitchens, Bathrooms, Laundry Rooms, Utility Rooms, and Garages
      • xx
        Add caption

      • Residential High Performance Attics / Ducts in Conditioned Spaces (HPA/DCS) - This proposed measure is a modification to the prescriptive residential building requirements to allow two methods of saving energy. Heating and cooling air distribution losses in a central forced air system significantly reduce efficiency. Duct sealing has been addressed but the negative impact of ducts located above the insulation in attics remains to be addressed. One part of the proposal introduces a prescriptive requirement for the location of duct work and equipment in residential and low-rise multifamily buildings. The other part includes an alternative prescriptive requirement that focuses on the performance of duct and attic characteristics.

        The measure consists of two alternatives for accomplishing improved envelope characteristics and reduced HVAC distribution losses. These two approaches will have similar energy impacts on the building.

        • High Performance Attics (HPA) implements a package of measures that minimizes the temperature difference between the attic space and the conditioned air being transported through ductwork in the attic. It also reduces heat transfer through the roof into the attic. The option will include additional components needed to achieve the required reduction in distribution losses including very low leakage (<4%) ducts and air handler system and highly insulated ducts.

        • Ducts in Conditioned Space (DCS) locates ducts inside the building’s thermal and air barrier envelope. The DCS criteria can be met by: ductless systems such as Multi Mini Split heat pumps or radiant hydronic heating and cooling; ducts and equipment in a sealed attic; ducts in dropped ceilings and equipment in an interior mechanical closet; and other alternative approaches discussed below.


      • Residential High Performance Walls  -  Proposed Prescriptive U-factor ~0.05 for exterior walls CZs 1-6 and 8-16

        The Residential High Performance Walls measure is intended to increase the performance of the residential envelope, reducing the amount of heat transfer through walls and thus reduce HVAC loads. The CASE Team is investigating two changes to the Standards: mandatory Quality Insulation Installation (QII) for fiberglass batt insulation; and improved prescriptive wall insulation requirements.

        QII Mandatory for Batt Insulation
        The IOU C&S team intends to add mandatory requirements for QII when fiberglass batt insulation is installed, which will require verification by a HERS rater or Building Performance Institute (BPI) Building Analyst to ensure proper insulation installation within the entire thermal envelope. Currently, a compliance credit is awarded for installations that verify QII. This proposal would require QII for batt insulation, while still allowing a compliance credit for QII with other types of insulation. Field surveys have found that the most commonly used wall insulation in California are fiberglass batts. Requiring QII for batt insulation would ensure that the majority of insulation installations are properly implemented, increasing the effective U-factor of these wall assemblies.

        This measure would modify the mandatory requirements, remove the current compliance credit for QII with batt insulation, and revise the corresponding standard energy budget in the prototype model. The measure would also update Joint and Residential Appendices language, and compliance forms, as related to QII requirements. This measure modifies existing code language, but does not modify the scope of the Standards.

        Wall Assembly Strategies
        This measure also lowers the prescriptive whole wall insulation U-factor requirements for wood framed walls in residential and low-rise multifamily buildings. The CASE team is investigating the feasibility of lowering U-factor requirements while considering the variety of framing and cavity insulation strategies available to reach lower U-factors. These strategies include:
        1. 2×6 -inch studs
          1. At 16” on center (OC)
          2. At 24” OC
          3. Advanced Framing techniques
        2. Structurally Insulated Panels (SIPs)
        3. Staggered studs
        4. Double walls
        These wall designs allow for greater R-values for cavity insulation, quality installation that fills all gaps and does not compress insulation, and, in some cases, reduced thermal bridging. Currently, these types of framing techniques are compliance options in the performance approach for the 2013 Title 24 Standards. The use of batt, blown-in, spray foam, flash-and-batt, and continuous (rigid) insulation with these wall types were assessed. This measure affects the prescriptive requirements and related modeling algorithms for standard walls. This measure modifies existing code language, but does not modify the scope of the Standards.

      • Tankless Water Heaters - The Instantaneous Water Heaters measure proposes to modify the prescriptive requirements for gas domestic hot water systems in newly constructed single-family buildings and multi-family buildings with dedicated water heaters for each dwelling unit. The current prescriptive approach allows the use of either gas storage water heaters or tankless gas water heaters. The proposed measure would modify the language by specifying that the Energy Factor (EF) of the water heater would have to be at least as high as the federal minimum EF for tankless gas water heaters (EF = 0.82). Buildings using the performance approach to comply with the standards could deploy a number of strategies to achieve the energy budget for water heating, including installing a high-efficiency condensing gas storage water heater.

        Since tankless gas water heaters have higher EF ratings than storage-type water heaters and water heating accounts for the largest share of energy usage in a home, the proposed prescriptive requirement is anticipated to garner significant energy savings for California.

        This measure builds upon the high-efficiency water heater (HEWH) ready measure that was adopted into the 2013 Title 24 standards (effective date July 1, 2014). The HEWH standards requires domestic water heating systems in new residential construction (single-family and multi-family buildings with dedicated water heaters in individual dwelling units) to be designed to accommodate condensing gas storage and tankless gas water heaters. By the time the 2016 Title 24 standards take effect in 2017, builders will be accustomed to designing for higher-efficiency water heaters. High–efficiency water heaters have also been proven to be cost-effective in all climate zones across California.

        The IOU Codes and Standards Team is seeking feedback on the feasibility of revising the prescriptive requirements for domestic hot water heating systems in single-family buildings and multi-family buildings with dedicated water heating units for each dwelling unit. In particular, feedback is desired on current construction practice, on relative costs of insulation techniques, and on design issues of advanced construction assemblies, if any, not directly related to cost.

      • Residential HVAC Field Verification and Diagnosis - The Residential HVAC Field Verification and Diagnostics measure is intended to reduce inefficiencies in residential HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) equipment by improving fault testing procedures and air flow efficiency requirements. Laboratory work has shown the impact of refrigerant charge levels on energy efficiency can be significant.

        Most residential air conditioners and heat pumps are split systems with an inside coil and an outside compressor bearing unity which are connected with refrigeration tubing. Systems are installed on-site, far from the production line and manufacturing quality control. Though manufacturer’s installation manuals instruct the technician how to safely and correctly assemble and then charge the system, many of the new air conditioners in California fail to achieve their rated efficiency due to improper amounts of refrigerant, improper evacuation, metering device malfunctions, and other problems. The impact of this degraded performance on the life cycle cost may be large statewide. The 2005, 2008 and 2013 Title 24 code cycles have required that refrigerant charge is done according to a superheat or subcooling protocol, which is verified by a HERS rater. According to a 2012 study, technicians in the field may not understand how to test, diagnose, and repair faults properly.

        These faults are often related to refrigerant charge. Modifications and additions are proposed to improve the 2013 code for industry input, including the following:
        1. Modify charge indicator displays (CIDs) requirement to allow a broader range of devices installed with the system that can specifically detect performance degradation.
        2. Develop an exception to Section 150.1(c)7A and Section 150.2(b)1F to exempt single and multiple headed mini-split heat pumps that OEMs sell as a system (including refrigerant piping, charge, and terminal units) from refrigerant charge verification.
        3. Modify the Joint Appendix RA3.2.2 to allow manufacturer’s installation instructions to be used instead of the generic charge tables for superheat and subcooling.
        4. Modify the Joint Appendix RA3.2.2 to require that a liquid line filter/dryer be installed on all split systems. Manufacturers ship liquid line dryers with units but they are not typically installed.
        5. Develop alternatives to verification of weigh-in charging that do not require HERS verification.
        6. If an AC system is installed in cold weather, explore whether the new registry developed for 2013 allows charge to be checked later when the weather is warm enough. Manufacturer’s installation manuals are clear that installation is not complete until charge is checked when the weather is warm enough.
        7. Explore the possibility of using the surface temperature only method of charge verification developed by PNNL.
        8. Propose reducing the 0.58 watts/cfm for new residential construction based on the USDOE Furnace Fan proceedings. Also consider requiring 400 cfm/ton airflow or more.
        9. Explore adding a Section 150.2(b)1Fi(b) to exempt replacement (altered) space conditioning systems with a TXV from the 300 cfm/ton minimum airflow requirement.
        10. For altered systems, explore the ramification of exempting them from refrigerant charge verification if a set of prescriptive requirements, such having a TXV, are met.
        11. Develop the scope of work needed to develop the lab and field data needed for the projected 2019 Title 24 modifications.

      • 4. Benefits - 
          “Energy Efficiency is the cheapest, fastest, and most reliable 
          way to create jobs, save consumers money and cut pollution 
          from the power sector.” Governor Jerry Brown 
        • Green Job Creation  -  Most new jobs should and will be created in the private sector, but government can play an important role in establishing a favorable climate for job creation. 
        • Higher Paying Jobs 
        • Investment By Entrepreneurs 
        • Global Competitiveness
        5. Risks/Issues
        • xxx
        6. Success Criteria
        1. More Efficient Buildings… Require the manufacturing, design, installation, monitoring and maintenance of efficient systems and technologies,
        2. Establish a plan and timeline to make new homes and commercial buildings “Zero Net Energy” 
        3. Highly efficient structures that use onsite renewable energy for all their electricity and natural gas needs 
        4. Design new more efficient buildings that use half the energy they compared to the 2008 Standards home

        7. Companies/Organizations
        1. CEC - California Energy Commission -  Workshops, Notices, and Documents 2016 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Pre-Rulemaking 

        2. Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc.  -  San Francisco-based consulting firm since 1989. Experienced in linking technical-economic analysis to policy decision-making and public process.  E3 worked on the 2005 and 2008 Title 24 TDV

        3. Energy Solutions - Oakland, CA - Experience includes evaluating emerging technologies, benchmarking building energy use, conducting energy audits, acting as owner’s representative, designing and implementing energy efficiency programs, developing and defending state and federal appliance and building standards, and developing marketing strategies to maximize program impacts.
          Michael McGaraghan, Energy Solutions mmcgaraghan@energy-solution.com - Residential Lighting

        4. http://title24stakeholders.com/ - 

        5. TRC Solutions - Lowell, MA - A national engineering, consulting, and construction management firm that provides integrated services to the energy, environmental and infrastructure markets.
          David Douglass-Jaimes, TRC ddouglass-jaimes@trcsolutions.com - Residential Lighting

        8. Links
        1. http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2016standards/background.html

      Wednesday, August 6, 2014

      Title 24 2016 Non-Residential

      California's Building Energy Efficiency Standards are updated on an approximately three-year cycle. The 2013 Standards continue to improve upon the 2008 Standards for new construction of, and additions and alterations to, residential and nonresidential buildings and went into effect on July 1, 2014. 2016 revisions are under discussion now and are scheduled to take effect Jan 1, 2017

      Navigate this Report
      Back to Energy Efficiency Index
      1. Background

      2. Acronyms/Definitions
      3. Proposed Revisions Non Residential
      4. Benefits
      5. Risks/Issues
      6. Success Criteria
      7. Companies/Organizations
      8. Links

      1.Background
      • Policy Drivers
        • Governor's “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” 
        • Zero Net Energy: Residential by 2020 and Nonresidential by 2030 
        • CARB Climate Change Scoping Plan 
        • California Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan

      • 2016 Standards Update Process
        • April 4, 2014 - CBIA/CEC Standards Forum
        • April – May 2014 - IOU CASE Stakeholder Meetings
        • May – Aug 2014 - CEC Staff Public Workshops
        • November 2014 - Draft 2016 Standards
        • January 2015 - Release 45-day Language
        • April 2015 - Release 15-Day Language
        • May 2015 - Adoption at CEC Business Meeting
        • January 1, 2017 - Effective Date of the Standards

      2. Acronyms/Definitions
      1. ACM - Alternate Calculation Method - California Building Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings allow compliance by either a prescriptive or performance method. Performance compliance uses computer modeling software to trade off efficiency measures. For example, to allow more windows, the designer will specify more efficient windows, or to allow more west-facing windows they will install a more efficient cooling system. Computer performance compliance is typically the most popular compliance method because of the flexibility it provides in the building design.

      2. B/C - Benefit to Cost Ratio - Important metric in determining revisions to Title 24

      3. CASE - Codes And Standards Enhancement - Through CASE Reports, the IOUs will provide the California Energy Commission with the technical and cost-effectiveness information required to make informed judgments on proposed standards for promising energy efficiency design practices and technologies. Stakeholder Meetings provide an opportunity for stakeholders to help inform the development of these codes change proposals. The IOUs encourage participation in this step of the process through the submission of data— both primary sources and references to existing data, e.g., reports, spreadsheets, etc.

      4. CZ - Climate Zone - 16 zones in California used by the California Energy Commission to determine which energy efficiency measures are appropriate in which environment.  In more moderate climates along the coast, certain energy efficiency investments may not be economic.
        California Climate Zones

        1. FEG - Fan Efficiency Grades - A numerical rating that classifies fans by their aerodynamic ability to convert mechanical shaft power to air power.  A more efficient fan model will have a higher FEG rating. FEGs apply to the efficiency of the fan only and not to the motor and drives. This metric has been adopted by ASHRAE and was created by the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA).

        2. J-Curve - Goal is to maximize efficiency with no increase in total life cycle cost (LCC)
          Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014


        3. LCC - Life Cycle Costs - The legislation authorizing Title 24 requires “The standards adopted or revised pursuant to subdivisions shall be cost-effective when taken in their entirety and when amortized over the economic life of the structure compared with historic practice. When determining cost-effectiveness, the commission shall consider the value of the water or energy saved, impact on product efficacy for the consumer, and the life cycle cost of complying with the standard.”
          • Discounted cash flows for costs and benefits
          • Accounts for maintenance costs/benefits 
          • Appropriate discount rates and life of measures - 30 years for residential measures

          The Annual LCC Method: Change in LCC =  Change in Initial Cost of Construction -  Present Value of Electricity Cost Savings -  Present Value of Gas Cost Savings ΔLCC = ΔConstruction –PV(Electricity) – PV(Gas)  (Discount Rate: 3% Life Cycle: 15 and 30 years)

        4. LPA - Lighting Power Allowance - The maximum allowable lighting density permitted by the code. It is expressed in watts per square foot for a given occupancy/space type

        5. LPD -  Lighting Power Density - Technically represents the load of any lighting equipment in any defined area, or the watts per square foot of the lighting equipment. However, in the lighting industry it is often associated with the lighting power allowance (LPA) permitted by the building energy code in question.

        6. TDV - Time Dependent Valuation - The TDV factors are used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures in buildings.  The metric values energy efficiency based on when energy savings occur, reflecting the variations over time in the cost of energy production and delivery.  Based on hourly (or monthly) cost of energy, scaled to rates and climate zone sensitive 
          • Value of gas and electricity changes depending on the season and the time of day
          •  8,760 TDV multipliers for each hour of the year 
          • Favors measures that save energy during high demand periods


        3. Proposed Revisions - Non-Residential
        • TDV
          • 1. Develop hourly 15-year and 30-year forecasts of avoided cost of energy 
            • Residential and Nonresidential Electricity Costs 
            • Residential and Nonresidential Natural Gas Costs 
            • Residential and Nonresidential Propane Costs 
          • 2.  Calculate net present value (NPV) of cost stream  - 3% real discount rate (at 2% inflation = 5% nominal) 
          • 3.  Convert NPV costs ($/unit energy) into TDV energy factors (kWh/kBtu for electricity)
          • Incorporate assumptions from the 2013 Integrated Energy Report (IEPR
            • Natural gas cost to electric generators 
            • Marginal energy costs under various demand and generation scenarios 
            • GHG costs 
            • Electric and natural gas rate forecasts 
          •  Update hourly electric marginal cost of energy 
          •  Incorporate Effective Load Carrying Capability (ELCC) method for electric generation capacity allocation factors
          • Update electric T&D marginal costs

        • Opaque envelope - The opaque envelope U-factor prescriptive requirements will be updated. No changes to fenestration requirements.  Envelope Requirements last updated for the 2008 code cycle.   General feedback is most designers build to meet  minimum prescriptive requirements, except for LEED and special incentivized projects
          • General Findings 
            • Comparing assemblies (not U-factors):  ASHRAE 90.1 is more stringent for metal building and wood-framed roofs.  Title 24 is as or more stringent than 90.1-2013 for most wall types
            • Greater opportunity for improvement in mild climate zones 
            •  Greater opportunity for improvement in roof assemblies 
        • Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014

          • Nonresidential 
            • Increase metal building roof insulation requirement from R-19 to filled cavity, R-19+R-10 
            • Increase wood-framed roof requirement from R-11 to R-19 in some cases 
            •  No change planned for steel-framed wall 
            • No significant change planned for wood-framed wall
          • High-rise residential 
            • Increase metal building roof insulation to FC 
            •  Increase steel-framed wall, similar to nonresidential req. 
            • No change planned for steel-framed wall
            • Minor updates to wood-framed wall requirements

        • HVAC and WH Equipment Efficiency - In order for Title 24 to be consistent with both ASHRAE 90.1 and the Code of Federal Regulations, the proposed measure will update Title 24 Table 110.2-K Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers, Minimum Efficiency Requirements to match the new boiler efficiency levels.  A cost effectiveness analysis will not be required since the proposed efficiencies will be adopted by the DOE which has already been vetted through the ASHRAE standards committee and submitted for public review

        • Thermally Driven Cooling -  This potential new code change affects newly installed thermally driven chillers where the cooling effect is driven by heat rather than mechanical compressors. The heat source could be solar thermal, waste heat, or a combination. The waste heat could be process heat, cogeneration, or other sources. Absorption chillers are the most common form of thermally driven chillers and have been available for over 50 years. A number of manufacturers currently offer a variety of absorption chillers. Another form of cooling that makes use of waste heat is desiccant cooling. Desiccants are used to remove water vapor out of an air stream and waste heat is used to regenerate the desiccant so it is ready to absorb more water vapor. The dried air is then evaporative cooled.

          This potential change would offer a Title 24 compliance credit for the performance (whole building simulation energy trade-off) approach when cooling spaces with a thermally driven chiller. This is neither a prescriptive requirement nor a mandatory requirement and does not affect the base case budget of the performance approach. This change would allow some nonresidential and high-rise multifamily buildings to take credit for the presence of a heat recovery chiller.

          Thermal Cooling Benefits 
          • Provides end-users more options to manage and control energy use profile  
          • Potential electrical peak demand reduction  
          • Potential for customer utility bill savings, especially with TOU rates  
          • Opportunities for improved plant efficiency using heat recovery

        • Door and Windows Switch Controls - Any directly conditioned space with manually operable wall or roof openings to the outdoors shall be provided with interlock controls that disable mechanical heating and mechanical cooling to that space (e.g. by resetting the heating setpoint to 50F and the cooling setpoint to 100F) when any such opening is open. Mechanical cooling may remain enabled when an opening is open if outside air temperature is below space temperature.
        Add caption
        • Issues:
          • Occupant wants more fresh air and does not know or care about heating/cooling energy penalty. This is particularly true when the space temperature can be maintained at setpoint despite the extra infiltration load. 
          • Occupant does not know the zone mode (heating/cooling) or outside temperature so cannot gauge if opening the window will reduce or increase energy use.
          • Occupant opened the window under favorable conditions but left the room (with the window open) and conditions changed to unfavorable
        • Additional Non- Energy Benefits
          • Occupants will quickly learn that HVAC is interlocked and thus will feel free to open windows without fear of wasting heating/cooling energy thus resulting in improved air quality and occupant satisfaction. Studies have shown that occupants are willing to accept wider temperature dead-bands in buildings with operable windows.
          • Signal lights can easily be included (e.g. green light on thermostat display) that encourage occupants to open windows when conditions are favorable, thereby increasing energy savings and allowing occupants to feel good about saving energy.
          • The ACM rules will encourage architects to include operable windows in their designs.

        • Fan efficiency grades  - The fan efficiency measure will propose using a new metric known as the Fan Efficiency grade (FEG), a metric adopted by ASHRAE and created by the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA). The fan efficiency measure will require a minimum FEG of 67, and the total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within 15 percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan.

          This measure may for the most part already be a standard practice in the industry, as a FEG value of 67 is not a very high bar.  Energy savings may be minimal, but the minimum can always be raised once the metric is established.

        • Direct Digital Controls - The proposed measure is derived from ASHRAE 90.1 (2013) Section 6.4.3.10 and has already been vetted publically.  Would mandate DDC systems for certain building applications that are currently not required. By expanding the scope of applications requiring DDC, energy management data would be more readily available allowing for more efficient systems operations and the implementation of effective energy efficiency strategies. The measure would also specify the minimum capability of such mandated DDCs to ensure the full benefit of DDC for energy management.

          The proposed measure will have the greatest impact on small buildings and limited impact on medium and large buildings.  Most savings will be derived from Demand Control Ventilation, set point reset and optimum start controls

          Existing 2013 Title 24 does not have any requirements for Direct Digital Controls. It does define Direct Digital Controls as:  a type of control where controlled and monitored analog or binary data, such as temperature and contact closures, are converted to digital format for manipulation and calculations by a digital computer or microprocessor, then converted back to analog or binary form to control mechanical devices. This measure would add DDC requirements to Section 120.2 – Required Controls for Space-Conditioning Systems. The requirement of DDCs will apply to both new buildings and retrofits (alterations and additions) with HVAC systems of a set minimum size.The DDC systems that are mandated by proposed Table 120.2-A, above, shall have the following capabilities but not limited to:
        • Monitor zone and system demand for fan pressure, pump pressure, heating, and cooling.
        • Transfer zone and system demand information from zones to air distribution system controllers and from air distribution systems to heating and cooling plant controllers.
        • Automatically detect those zones and systems that may be excessively driving the reset logic and generate an alarm or other indication to the system operator.
        • Readily allow operator removal of zone(s) from the reset algorithm.
        • For new buildings, the DDC system shall be capable of trending and graphically displaying input and output points.
        • Note that buildings with mandated DDC systems will trigger another section of Title 24, Section 120.2(h), requiring Automatic Demand Response (ADR) capabilities,

        • HVAC Economizer Modifications - The 2013 Title 24 code requires that economizers be installed on packaged HVAC units commonly known as Roof Top Package Units (RTU) with cooling capacity equal to or greater than 54,000 Btuh. In practical terms, 5-ton RTUs and larger must have an economizer. Controls for economizers must have a Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) system that meets a list of requirements in section 120.2(i). The controls requirements have been reviewed by the industry and the FDD Committee of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance, and are approved and listed by the California Energy Commission. Recent laboratory testing has developed new insights to the performance of economizers.

          In response to stakeholder concerns and laboratory results, a set of modifications and additions are proposed for the 2013 code, including the following:
        • Clarify that controls for the economizer can be either stand alone or integrated into the RTU system controller. Manufacturers must list their compliant controller, either standalone or integrated, with the CEC.2 Also clarify how faults shall be reported in section 120.2(i)7.
        • Explore whether refrigerant pressure sensors requirements should still be included in section 120.2(i)3. Also, explore exempting packaged direct expansion units from refrigerant charge testing by modifying acceptance test requirements.
        • Modify standards to address field study findings indicating that when economizer dampers are fully open, airflow is rarely equal to 100% of the design airflow.
        • Modify standards to address field study findings indicating that leakage through economizer dampers is much higher than designed.
        • Coordinate and collaborate with the ASHRAE proposed standard 207P committee to develop a fully vetted standard for FDD.
        • Integrate the Economizer Testing guidance document into the Nonresidential Appendix and other appropriate locations.
        • Develop the scope of work for lab and field data necessary for projected 2019 Title 24 modifications.

        • Elevator Lighting and HVAC Controls  - Based on ASHRAE 90.1.  Anticipated to be mandatory,  This measure is being proposed in order to reduce electricity use in elevators when they are unoccupied, as well as reducing the energy used during operation.

          It is already industry standard practice for all new construction elevators to be installed with the sleep mode technology.   Most older elevators do not have sleep mode or LEDs installed. Most of the savings will result from upgrading older elevators during retrofits that trigger code. (Assumed to be 5% of elevators each year)
          • Will require elevator cabins to turn off lighting and ventilation when unoccupied for more than 15 minutes. 
          • Will require all cab lighting systems to have an efficacy greater or equal to 60 lumens per Watt. (ASHRAE 90.1 is only 35 lpW). 
          • Cab ventilation fans for elevators without air conditioning shall not consume over 0.33 W/cfm at maximum speed.

        • Escalator and Moving Walkway Speed Controls - Based on ASHRAE 90.1.  Adds a prescriptive requirement that new escalators and moving walkways must be equipped with speed control technology under the guidelines set forth in ASME A17.1, 2013.  
          Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014
          Currently escalators and moving walkways run at full speed during all hours of operation in the state of California, whether they are loaded or not.  Intermittent speed escalators and moving walkways are popular in Europe, and a few have already been installed in California with a special variance.

          Sensor issues still exist.  Black clothing is not always picked up. Approach angles vary.  The general consensus that this measure should be prescriptive instead of mandatory

          Source: CEC Staff Workshop on Proposed Efficiency Measures for Nonresidential Buildings June 12, 2014

        • Nonresidential Indoor Lighting Power LPDs - The Lighting Power Densities (LPD) in Title 24 are subject to change as new technologies (in particular, light source technologies that increase lamp efficacy) become available to the market. As a result, the LPD values continue to be revised downward over time in response to these technological advancements.
        • Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
          June 24, 2014
          ASHRAE 90.1-2013 has recently adopted LPD values for several building spaces that are similar to Title 24 LPD values. While 90.1 and Title 24 aren’t always directly comparable, there is widespread compatibility of the allowances in the two documents. Title 24 is required to have an energy code that is at least as stringent as the national energy code, however, ASHRAE 90.1-2013 is more stringent in some cases.

          This measure intends to make LPD adjustments to a selection of space categories and whole building values to reflect the values that have been established by ASHRAE 90.1 in their consensus-built document.

          Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
          June 24, 2014

          Lighting technology is improving. 

          • HPT8 lamps are marginally better than they were 5 years ago, but much more prevalent.
          • LED light sources are rapidly improving light sources are rapidly improving.
          •  LPD allowances are going to become increasingly less restrictive to design if they remain unchanged as new light source technologies continue to improve (LED)
            Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
            June 24, 2014
        • Nonresidential Lighting Control and Partial On Occupancy Sensors  - 
          • Partial-ON Controls Requirements - The existing lighting controls in Title 24 do not require partial-ON lighting controls. There is an existing power adjustment factor (PAF) in Table 140.6-A that provides an adjustment to the lighting power allowance (LPA) for spaces that include a partial-ON control approach (0.20 factor). There is a second PAF in Table 140.6-A that is intended for a combined Partial-ON and manual dimming control approach (0.25 factor).

            The partial-ON requirement has now been employed in ASHRAE 90.1-2013 as a minimum required measure (in conjunction with a manual-ON option). As a result, this approach has the general support of the design community.

            The intent is to remove the two PAF allowances and add language to Section 130.1(c) that will mandate the use of partial-ON occupancy sensors in applications where appropriate.

          • While the use of lighting controls is widespread, many designers employ an Automatic-On (to 100% output) approach for spaces. 100% output) approach for spaces.Manual-On (Vacancy Sensors) is employed for energy efficiency projects and by “green design teams regularly.

          • Issue: Lights coming on in the dimmed state can cause flicker the dimmed state, can cause flicker and strobe and strobe problems.  [CASE Team] This is an issue, but in many cases this is a result of improperly paired ballasts and lamps, not necessarily the fault of the dim level, especially since the level that the lighting is required to energize at is in the 50-70% range, rather than at a very low level. This concern will be considered in the language proposed for the code revision.

          • Occupancy Sensor Maximum Delay Time Requirement - The current language in Section 130.1 does not define a maximum delay time that occupancy sensors are permitted to be programmed with under normal circumstances. Section 1605.3(L)(2)(G)1 of Title 20 (the California appliance standard) defines that the maximum delay time that is permitted to be available in an occupancy sensor device sold in California is 30 minutes, however, that is not reasonable guidance for the maximum delay time under normal design circumstances.

            For this reason, and in keeping with the general recommendations that are established in ASHRAE 90.1, the intent is to add a maximum delay time to Section 130.1(c) to limit delay time to 20 minutes in all circumstances. This maximum will also be added to the acceptance testing process for occupancy sensors.

        • Outdoor lighting LPAs -The Outdoor Lighting Power Allowance (LPA) values in Title 24 are subject to change as new technologies (in particular, light source technologies that increase lamp efficacy) become available to the market. As a result, the LPA values have continued to slowly move downward over time in response to these technological advancements, most recently for pulse-start Metal Halide technology.

          x
          Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
          June 24, 2014

          ASHRAE 90.1-2013 has recently adopted values for exterior lighting that are similar to Title 24 LPA values. While 90.1 and Title 24 aren’t always directly comparable, there is widespread compatibility of the allowances in the two documents.

          However, ASHRAE 90.1-2013 is more stringent in some cases, and Title 24 is required to have an energy code that is at least equal to the national energy code.

          Light technology is improving. Pulse Start Metal Halide (PSMH) lamps are better than probe start lamps used as the basis in the past, and LEDs are lamps used as the basis in the past, and LEDs are  rapidly improving.  It is proposed to revise the basis of design from Metal Halide light sources to LED, project the efficacy of LED in 2017 and establish new LPA values for all in 2017 and establish new LPA values for all  outdoor lighting allowances.  The following Title 24 exterior allowances appear to be candidates for revision:
          • General hardscape allowance (IWA, AWA, LWA)
          • Outdoor Sales Frontage
          • Outdoor Sales Lots
          • Vehicle Service Station Hardscape
          • Vehicle Service Station Uncovered Fuel Dispenser
          • Vehicle Service Station Canopies
          • Sales Canopies
          • Non-Sales Canopies
          • Facades
          • Outdoor Dining

        • Outdoor lighting controls, Including Bi-level controls
          • Removal of occupancy lighting controls exception for sales lots and sales canopies -  Title 24 2013 included new lighting controls requirements for exterior fixtures. The most significant of these requirements calls for occupancy sensing capability and a corresponding reduction in wattage and output during vacant periods. The code language created exceptions for a number of different applications, including sales lots and sales canopies. This code change proposal will consider removing the exceptions for these applications. The proposed code change will not impact the exception for sales frontage, as defined in the code.

             Bulk of sales lots are are auto sales lots.  Bulk of sales canopies are fueling station canopies- found in auto sales as well

          • Revision of lighting controls exception threshold for exterior fixtures -   Title 24 2013 created exceptions to the occupancy sensing/bi-level requirement for pole mounted fixtures less than 75 watts and non-pole mounted fixtures less than 30 watts. This code change proposal will evaluate if market and technology developments justify reducing these thresholds.
          • Conservative Total Measure Savings: 1.62 GWh
        • Source: Staff Workshop on Proposed Lighting Efficiency Measures for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings
          June 24, 2014

        • 4. Benefits - 
            “Energy Efficiency is the cheapest, fastest, and most reliable 
            way to create jobs, save consumers money and cut pollution 
            from the power sector.” Governor Jerry Brown 
          • Green Job Creation  -  Most new jobs should and will be created in the private sector, but government can play an important role in establishing a favorable climate for job creation. 
          • Higher Paying Jobs 
          • Investment By Entrepreneurs 
          • Global Competitiveness
          5. Risks/Issues
          • xxx
          6. Success Criteria
          1. More Efficient Buildings… Require the manufacturing, design, installation, monitoring and maintenance of efficient systems and technologies,
          2. Establish a plan and timeline to make new homes and commercial buildings “Zero Net Energy” 
          3. Highly efficient structures that use onsite renewable energy for all their electricity and natural gas needs 
          4. Design new more efficient buildings that use half the energy they compared to the 2008 Standards home

          7 Companies/Organizations
          1. AEC - Architectural Energy Corporation - Boulder, CO, (also San Francisco; Nashville; Fairfax, VA; and Springfield, MO) -   Subsidiary of United Technologies since 2008 -   Provides Sustainable Building Services including sustainable design consulting for new construction and renovation and architectural/engineering services for sustainable energy management for both supply and demand side energy in new and existing buildings.   Portfolio includes energy and daylighting analysis, sustainable design consulting, LEED® certification consulting, commissioning, measurement and verification, energy auditing, design and construction services and retro-commissioning. John Arent jarent@archenergy.com - Nonresidential Opaque Envelope

          2. ASWB Engineering Tustin, CA -  Management Consultants specializes in helping clients identify and implement measures to increase energy efficiency, improve system operation, and reduce operating costs.  John Baffa, EIT,  Jbaffa@aswb-engineering.com - Escalators, Elevators, Fan Efficiency; Scott Bailey  sebailey@aswb-engineering.com - Direct Digital Controls (DDC)

          3. CEC - California Energy Commission -  Workshops, Notices, and Documents2016 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Pre-Rulemaking

          4. Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc.  -  San Francisco-based consulting firm since 1989. Experienced in linking technical-economic analysis to policy decision-making and public process.  E3 worked on the 2005 and 2008 Title 24 TDV

          5. Energy Solutions - Oakland, CA - Experience includes evaluating emerging technologies, benchmarking building energy use, conducting energy audits, acting as owner’s representative, designing and implementing energy efficiency programs, developing and defending state and federal appliance and building standards, and developing marketing strategies to maximize program impacts. -  Mike McGaraghan mmcgaraghan@energy-solution.com  Outdoor Lighting Controls

          6. PECI - Portland, OR - Designs and manages energy efficiency programs for utility providers, government organizations and other clients Matt Tyler, PE, mtyler@peci.org - Thermally  Drive Cooling

          7. Taylor Engineering - Alameda, CA - Engineering firm specializing in mechanical systems design and construction, energy conservation, indoor air quality, controls, and system commissioning.   Jeff Stein, jstein@taylor-engineering.com - Window and Door Switches

          8. http://title24stakeholders.com/ - 

          9. TRC Solutions - Lowell, MA - A national engineering, consulting, and construction management firm that provides integrated services to the energy, environmental and infrastructure markets.  Farhad Farahmand, FFarahmand@TRCSolutions.com - Nonresidential HVAC Economizer;
            Michael Mutmansky, mmutmansky@trcsolutions.com - Nonresidential Lighting – Indoor LPDs & Nonresidential Lighting – Partial-On Occupancy Sensors & Control Credits Occupancy Sensors & Control Credits, Nonresidential Lighting – Outdoor Lighting LPA

          8. Links
          1. http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2016standards/background.html