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Tuesday, August 30, 2011

ISO 50001

ISO 50001 was created to focus on Energy Management Systems as a way to achieve energy efficiency and GHG Reductions

Conceptual representation of energy performance

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1. Background

2. Acronyms/Definitions
3. Business Case
4. Benefits
5. Risks/Issues
6. Success Factors
7. Case Studies
8. Companies/Organizations
9. Links

1.Background
  • In June 2011, the International Organization for Standardization released ISO 50001, a standard for energy management systems
  • The standard aims to help organizations establish the systems and processes to improve their energy performance, including efficiency and consumption. The ISO says the standard is applicable to all types and sizes of organizations. 
  • It originated out of a request for an international energy management standard from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). In 2008 ISO created a project committee, ISO/PC 242, Energy management, to develop the standard.

2. Acronyms/Definitions
  1. Boundaries - Physical or site limits and/or organizational limits as defined by the organization. Examples include a process, a group of processes, a plant, an entire organization or multiple sites under the control of an organization.

  2. CIP - Continuous Improvement Process - An ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. Recurring process which results in enhancement of energy performance and the energy management system The process of establishing objectives and finding opportunities for improvement is a continual process. Continual improvement achieves improvements in overall energy performance, consistent with the organization’s energy policy.

  3. Correction - Action to eliminate a detected nonconformity.

  4. Corrective action - A change implemented to address a weakness identified in a management system. Normally corrective actions are implemented in response to a customer complaint, abnormal levels of internal nonconformity, nonconformities identified during an internal audit or adverse or unstable trends in product and process monitoring such as would be identified by SPC.There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity. Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence.

  5. Energy - For the purpose of this standard, energy refers to the various forms of energy, including renewable, which can be purchased, stored, treated, used in equipment or in a process, or recovered.

  6. Energy baseline - Quantitative reference(s) providing a basis for comparison of energy performance. An energy baseline reflects a specified period of time. An energy baseline can be normalized using variables affecting energy use and/or consumption such as production level, degree days (outdoor temperature), etc. Energy baseline is also used for calculation of energy savings, as a reference before and after implementation of energy performance improvement actions.

  7. Energy efficiency - Ratio or other quantitative relationship between an output of performance, service, goods or energy, and an input of energy. Examples are conversion efficiency, energy required/energy used, output/input, theoretical energy used to operate/energy used to operate. Both input and output have to be clearly specified in quantity and quality, and be measurable.

  8. EnMS - Energy management system - Set of interrelated or interacting elements to establish an energy policy and energy objectives, and processes and procedures to achieve those objectives.

  9. EMS - Energy Management System - A system of computer-aided tools used by operators of electric utility grids to monitor, control, and optimize the performance of the generation and/or transmission system. The monitor and control functions are known asSCADA; the optimization packages are often referred to as "advanced applications".

    The computer technology is also referred to as SCADA/EMS or EMS/SCADA. In these respects, the terminology EMS then excludes the monitoring and control functions, but more specifically refers to the collective suite of power network applications and to the generation control and scheduling applications.

  10. Energy management team - Person(s) responsible for effective implementation of the energy management system activities and for delivering energy performance improvements. The size and nature of the organization, and available resources, will determine the size of the team. The team may be one person, such as the management representative.

  11. Energy objective - Specified outcome or achievement set to meet the organization's energy policy related to improved energy performance

  12. Energy performance - measurable results related to energy efficiency, use and consumption. In the context of energy management systems, results can be measured against the organization’s energy policy, objectives, targets and other energy performance requirements. Energy performance is one component of the performance of the energy management system.

  13. EnPI - Energy performance indicator - Quantitative value or measure of energy performance as defined by the organization. EnPIs could be expressed as a simple metric, ratio or a more complex model.

  14. Energy policy - Statement by the organization of its overall intentions and direction of an organization related to its energy performance as formally expressed by top management. The energy policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of energy objectives and energy targets.

  15. Energy review - Determination of the organization’s energy performance based on data and other information leading to identification of opportunities for improvement. In other regional or national standards, concepts such as identification and review of energy aspects or energy profile are included in the concept of energy review.

  16. Energy target - Detailed and quantifiable energy performance requirement, applicable to the organization or parts thereof, that arises from the energy objective and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve this objective.

  17. Internal audit - Systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which requirements are fulfilled.

  18. ISO - International Organization for Standardization - Geneva, Switzerland, an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded in 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards.

  19. ISO 9000 - Quality management standards - Designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders. Third party certification bodies provide independent confirmation that organizations meet the requirements of ISO 9001. Over a million organizations worldwide are independently certified, making ISO 9001 one of the most widely used management tools in the world today. Similar to ISO 50001 in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself.

  20. ISO 14000 - Environmental management standards - Exist to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and (c) continually improve in the above. The ISO 14000 family includes most notably the ISO 14001 standard, which represents the core set of standards used by organizations for designing and implementing an effective environmental management system. Other standards included in this series are ISO 14004, which gives additional guidelines for a good environmental management system, and more specialized standards dealing with specific aspects of environmental management. Similar to ISO 50001 in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself.

  21. Nonconformity - Non-fulfilment of a requirement

  22. Organization - Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration and that has the authority to control its energy use and consumption. An organization can be a person or group of people.

  23. Preventive action - Action to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity. There can be more than one cause for a potential nonconformity. Preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence whereas corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence.

  24. Procedure - Specified way to carry out an activity or a process Procedures can be documented or not. When a procedure is documented, the term “written procedure” or “documented procedure" is frequently used.

  25. Record - Document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed Records can be used, for example, to document traceability and to provide evidence of verification, preventive action and corrective action.

  26. Scope - Extent of activities, facilities and decisions which the organization addresses through an EnMS, which can include several boundaries The scope can include the energy related to transport.

  27. SDO - Standard Development Organization - Any organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of some relatively wide base of affected adopters.

    Most standards are voluntary in the sense that they are offered for adoption by people or industry without being mandated in law. Some standards become mandatory when they are adopted by regulators as legal requirements in particular domains.

  28. Significant energy use - Energy use accounting for substantial energy consumption and/or offering considerable potential for energy performance improvement Significance criteria are determined by the organization.

  29. Top management - Person or group of people who directs and controls an organization at the highest level. Top management controls the organization defined within the scope and boundaries of the energy management system.


3. Business Case
  • ISO 50001 is designed to help companies make better use of their energy-consuming assets, evaluate and prioritize the implementation of energy-efficient technology, and promote efficiency throughout the supply chain. It is designed to integrate with other management standards, especially ISO 14001 on environmental management and ISO 9001 on quality management.

  • ISO 50001:2011 Abstract
    • Specifies requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining and improving an energy management system, whose purpose is to enable an organization to follow a systematic approach in achieving continual improvement of energy performance, including energy efficiency, energy use and consumption.
    • Specifies requirements applicable to energy use and consumption, including measurement, documentation and reporting, design and procurement practices for equipment, systems, processes and personnel that contribute to energy performance.
    • Applies to all variables affecting energy performance that can be monitored and influenced by the organization.
    • Does not prescribe specific performance criteria with respect to energy.
    • Requires participating companies to commit to continual improvements in energy performance.
    • Designed to be used independently, but it can be aligned or integrated with other management systems.
    • Applicable to any organization wishing to ensure that it conforms to its stated energy policy and wishing to demonstrate this to others, such conformity being confirmed either by means of self-evaluation and self-declaration of conformity, or by certification of the energy management system by an external organization.

  • More specifically it encourages to: ;
    • Set a Corporate Energy Performance Policy
    • Develop a baseline of energy use;
    • Actively manage energy use and costs;
    • Reduce emissions without negative effect on operations;
    • Continue to improve energy use/product output over time; Document savings for internal and external use (e.g. emission credits

  • ISO 50001 Contents
    Energy Management Model - From ISO Draft
    1 Scope
    2. Normative references
    3. Terms and definitions

    4. Energy management system requirements
    4.1 General requirements

    4.2 Management responsibility - Top management shall demonstrate its commitment and support. Designate a management representative

    4.3 Energy policy - The energy policy shall state the organization's commitment for achieving energy performance improvement. Top management shall ensure that the energy policy:
    • Includes a commitment to continual improvement in energy performance;
    • includes a commitment to comply with applicable legal and other requirements
    • Provides the framework for setting/reviewing energy objectives and targets;
    • Supports the purchase of energy efficient products and services

    4.4 Energy Planning
    4.4.1 General - The organization shall conduct and document energy planning that includes the following:
    • legal and other requirements to which the organization subscribes,
    • energy review and energy baseline,
    • energy performance indicators,
    • objectives, targets, and action plans.
    Energy planning shall lead to activities to improve energy performance. 
     4.4.2 Legal and other requirements - The organization shall identify and have access to the applicable legal and other requirements related to its energy uses.
    • determine how these requirements apply to its energy uses
    • shall ensure that these legal and other requirements are taken into account in establishing, implementing and maintaining the EnMS

    4.4.3 Energy review The organization shall develop, record, and maintain an energy review.
    • Methodology and criteria used in the energy review shall be documented.
    • Analyze energy use based on measurement and other data
    • Identify current energy sources
    • Evaluate past and present energy use and consumption and estimate for future
    • Identify the areas of significant energy use and consumption
    • Identify other relevant variables affecting significant energy use and consumption;
    • Identify, prioritize, and record opportunities for improving energy performance, including
      • potential energy sources
      • use of renewables
      • alternative energy sources
    • The energy review shall be updated at defined intervals and in response to major changes in facilities, equipment, systems, or processes.
        4.4.4 Energy baseline - The energy baseline shall be established using the information in the initial energy review. 
         4.4.5 Energy performance indicators - The organization shall identify EnPIs appropriate for monitoring and measuring energy performance. 
         4.4.6 Objectives and Action Plans - Establish, implement and maintain documented energy objectives and targets at the relevant functions, levels, processes or facilities within the organization.
        • Must be measurable and include specific timeframes.
        • Shall be consistent with the energy policy.
        • Consider significant energy uses, and opportunities to improve energy performance as identified in the energy review
        • Include financial, operational and business conditions, technological options, and the views of interested parties.
        4.5 Implementation and operation 
         4.5.3.1 Documentation Requirements - The organization shall establish, implement and maintain information, in paper or electronic form, to describe the core elements of the EnMS and their interaction. Includes: 
        • The scope and boundaries of the EnMS
        • The energy policy;
        • Energy objectives, targets, and action plans
        • Plans for achieving the energy objectives and targets and documents considered by the organization to be necessary for ensuring planning, operation and control.
            4.5.3.2 Control of documents - Standard ISO processes for approval, retention and verification of current versions.  
            4.5.4 Operational control - Must plan operations associated with its significant energy uses to ensure that they are resourced and carried out under specified conditions, by:
            • Establishing and setting criteria for the effective operation and maintenance of significant energy uses or where the absence could lead to a significant deviation from effective energy performance
            • Operating and maintaining facilities, processes, systems and equipment, in accordance with operational criteria
              4.5.5 Communication - The organization shall ensure awareness and understanding of personnel
              • Shall include a process by which any person working in or on behalf of the organization can make comments or suggest improvements to the EnMS.
              • Decide whether to communicate externally about its energy management system and energy performance, and shall record its decision.
                  4.5.6 Design - Consider energy performance improvement opportunities in the design of new, modified and renovated facilities, equipment, systems and processes that can have a significant impact on energy performance. The results of the energy performance evaluation shall be incorporated into the specification, design and procurement activities of the relevant project.
                  4.5.7.1 Procurement of energy services, products and equipment - When procuring energy services, products and equipment that have significant impact on energy use, the organization shall inform suppliers that procurement is partly evaluated on the basis of energy performance. Define criteria to assess energy use over the expected operating lifetime of energy using products, equipment and services (those that have significant effect on energy performance). The organization should include contingency and emergency situations and potential disasters relating to equipment with significant energy use.  
                  4.5.7.2 Procurement of energy supply - The organization shall define energy purchasing specifications as applicable for effective energy performance. 
                   4.6 Checking performance 
                   4.6.1 Monitoring, measurement and analysis  - Key characteristics of operations that determine energy performance are to be monitored, measured and analysed at planned intervals:
                  • Outputs of the energy review 
                  • Significant energy uses
                  • Relationship between significant energy use and consumption 
                  • Energy performance indicators
                  • Effectiveness of the action plans in achieving objectives and targets 
                    The organization shall define and periodically review its measurement needs.
                    • Calibration shall be maintained
                    • Investigate and respond to significant deviations in energy performance
                        4.6.2 Evaluation of legal/other compliance - Evaluate compliance with legal and other requirements relevant to its energy uses. 
                         4.6.3 Internal audit of the EnMS - The organization shall conduct internal audits at planned intervals to ensure that the EnMS:
                        • Conforms to planned arrangements for energy management including the requirements of this International Standard.
                        • Is effectively implemented and maintained. 
                          4.6.5 Control of records - The organization shall define and implement controls for the identification, retrieval and retention of records 
                           4.6.4 Nonconformities, correction, corrective, and preventive action - The corrective action procedure shall define requirements for:
                          • Reviewing nonconformities and determining the causes
                          • Determining and implementing action to prevent recurrence
                          • Reviewing the effectiveness of the corrective or preventive action taken.
                            Corrective actions and preventive actions shall be appropriate to the magnitude of the actual or potential problems and the energy consequences encountered.  
                            4.7. Management Review - At planned intervals top management shall review the organization’s energy management system to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness.  
                            4.7.2 Output from management review shall include any decisions or actions related to:
                            • Changes in the energy performance of the organization; 
                            • Changes to the energy policy; 
                            • Changes to the EnPIs; 
                            • Changes to objectives, targets or other elements of the EnMS
                            • Allocation of resources.

                          4. Benefits
                          • Interoperability - ISO 50001 is based on the plan-do-check-act approach, as used in ISO 14001 and other management systems standards. - Allow integration with other organizational management systems such as environmental, and health and safety.
                          • Promote Energy Management and Performance in organizations  - Create transparency and facilitate communication on the management of energy resources
                          • Promote Energy Savings - Assist organizations in making better use of their existing energy-consuming assets
                          • Decrease GHG emissions -Facilitate energy management improvements for greenhouse gas emission reduction projects
                          • Improve Energy Efficiency in a systematic way - Promote energy management best practices and reinforce good energy management behaviors
                          • Assure compliance with an Energy Policy 
                          • Demonstrate this compliance to others - Provide a framework for promoting energy efficiency throughout the supply chain
                          • Assist facilities in evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-efficient technologies

                          5. Risks/Issues
                          • Coordination with Existing Standards - Several countries already have national energy management standards (Spain, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden, US, Thailand, Korea) ;The EU has completed work on a regional energy management standard, EN 16001;
                            Energy management standards are under development in Brazil
                          • Certification - Whether or not to certify the Energy Management System by an external organization

                          6. Success Factors
                          1. Executive Leadership - ISO 50001 stresses the involvement of executive leadership, saying that top management must establish, implement and maintain an energy policy. They must identify the scope of the system, communicate its importance, ensure that appropriate targets and performance indicators are established and ensure that results are measured.
                          2. Build on Successes with other Process Standards - Experience gained with implementing ISO9000 and ISO14000 family standards provides a foundation to develop and implement EnMS standards

                          7. Case Studies
                          • Schneider Electric’s head office (known as the Hive1) was one of the first to be  certified as complying with the new ISO 50001 standard for energy management systems 
                          • There are 24 companies working in the pilot mode of ISO 50001, across all types of manufacturing sectors and at all sizes.
                          • Between 2008 and 2010, five initial facilities in Texas were piloted, and have been certified to date. The nergy improvements achieved at the facilities ranged from 6.5 percent to 17.1 percent over a three-year period.

                            Among the initial feedback from the pilot project include the benefits of having a cross-functional plant energy management team that goes beyond just operations or engineering means that energy management becomes a shared responsibility, and that makes it much easier to incorporate significant changes in energy use.

                            One of the biggest shifts that the pilot projects found was that as a result of going through ISO 50001 certification, energy management became a way of doing business, instead of a project-by-project undertaking.

                          8. Companies/Organizations
                          1. IPIECA - London  - The global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues. IPIECA was formed in 1974 following the launch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Liaison Organization to ISO TC 242.

                          2. ISO - International Organization for Standardization - Geneva, Switzerland - An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded in 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards.

                          3. OLADE - Latin American Energy Organization - Quito, Ecuador - Created within the context of the international energy crisis of the early seventies, whose scope and impact was analyzed by the Latin America and the Caribbean countries, which lacked energy policies and facing the need to adequately address this crisis began a intense political mobilization process that came to an end on November 2, 1973 with the signing of the Lima Agreement, the constituent instrument of the Organization, ratified by 26 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Liaison Organization to ISO TC 242.

                          4. TC 242 - ISO Technical Committee on Energy Management - The scope is standardization in the field of energy management, including for example: energy efficiency, energy performance, energy supply, procurement practices for energy using equipment and systems, and energy use as well as measurement of current energy usage, implementation of a measurement system to document, report, and validate continual improvement in the area of energy management. ISO Committees in liaison
                            1. TC22 - Road Vehicles - All questions of standardization concerning compatibility, interchangeability and safety, with particular reference to terminology and test procedures (including the characteristics of instrumentation) for evaluating the performance of the following types of road vehicles and their equipment.
                            2. TC117 - Fans - Standardization in the field of fans used for industrial purposes including the ventilation of buildings and mines.
                            3. TC 207 SC 1 - Environmental Management - Scope: Standardization in the field of environmental management systems and tools in support of sustainable development. Excluded: test methods of pollutants, setting limit values and levels ofenvironmental performance, and standardization of products.
                            4. TC 207/SC 7 - Greenhouse Gas Management -
                            5. TC 257 - Energy Savings - General technical rules for determination of energy savings in renovation projects, industrial enterprises and regions

                          5. UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organization - Vienna, Austria - A specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria. The Organization's primary objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and the promotion of international industrial cooperation. ISO 50001 evolved out of a request from UNIDO.

                          6. WEC - World Energy Council - Founded in 1923, the World Energy Council is a global and inclusive forum for thought-leadership and engagement committed to our sustainable energy future. Their network of 93 national committees represents over 3000 member organizations including governments, industry and expert institutions. Their mission is to promote the sustainable supply and use of energy for the greatest benefit of all. Liaison Organization to ISO TC 242.

                          9. Links
                          1. ISO 50001 available for purchase from ISO for CHF 106,00
                          2. IPIECA - ISO 50001 Guide 
                          3. ISO 50001: Preparing for the New Energy Management Standard
                            GreenBiz.com Event Date: May 10, 2011 Webinar will be available in archive for one year
                          4. ISO 50001: The Six Things You Need to Know GreenBiz.com Event Date: May 10, 2011 Webinar  will be available in archive for one year

                          Tuesday, August 23, 2011

                          Electric Transportation Interoperability

                          NIST developed a roadmap for Electric Transportation standards as one of the "Four Priority Functionalities" that was identified by FERC in their draft "Smart Grid Policy"

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                          1. Background

                          2. Acronyms/Definitions
                          3. Business Case
                          4. Benefits
                          5. Risks/Issues
                          6. Success Criteria
                          7. Next Steps
                          8. Companies
                          9. Links

                          PEV Standards Space  Source: EPRI

                          1.Background
                          • For each functional priority, use cases were collected, reviewed for “architectural significance”, and a representative subset was chosen. These use cases were rigorously exercised, modified and completed by workshop participants. Workshop participants also performed requirements and gap analysis.
                          • PEV will add significantly to the load that the power system will have to serve, and if no regulation, coordination, and/or incentives are included, then PEV could significantly increase the cost of peak power.
                          • PEV, although still adding to the load, will help balance on- and off-peak loads through shifting when they are charged and also eventually by providing storage and discharging capacity. Additional ancillary services could also improve energy efficiency and power quality. These shifting strategies will result from carefully tailored pricing and market incentives.
                          • Communication standards for electric vehicles is a priority area due to the potential integration of vehicle batteries as a grid resource, as well as the recognition that vehicle charging will add significant load to the grid. Different organizations are looking at different elements of the communications issues and coordination of these efforts is required. NIST expects that coordination can be monitored and encouraged through a task group effort. The standards are now being developed, but implementations are lacking. Currently, the center of standards development work is SAE, and NIST is encouraging cooperation with the efforts listed in the following acronyms/definitions section.



                          Electric Transportation Application Summary Communication Diagram
                          (NIST Smart Grid Roadmap)


                          2. Acronyms/Definitions
                          1. ESI - Energy Services Interface - Provides cyber security and, often, coordination functions that enable secure interactions between relevant Home Area Network Devices and the Utility. Permits applications, such as remote load control, monitoring and control of distributed generation, in-home display of customer usage, reading of non-energy meters, and integration with building management systems. Provides auditing/logging functions that record transactions to and from Home.
                          2. EUMD - End Use Measurement Device - A device that measures energy consumed by a PEV and communicates the information to the ESI.
                          3. EVSE - Electric Vehicle Service Element - The EVSE provides the direct interface with the PEV, including a charger and information exchange capabilities. The charger can either be on-board the vehicle or off-board. On-board chargers require AC energy transfer to the vehicle (either 120 or 240V single phase) and Off-board chargers are within the EVSE
                          4. IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
                            • IEC TC69 – Electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks committee - Charge Infrastructure
                            • IEC SC23F – Optical disk cartridges for information interchange committee – Connecting devices committee - Connectors
                          5. IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
                            • IEEE-1547 Interconnecting Demand Response
                            • IEEE 929 - Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of PV Systems
                            • IEEE 519 - Electrical Power Systems Harmonic Control
                          6. FERC – Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
                          7. NEC – National Electric Code
                          8. SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers
                            • SAE -J1772- Device standard for Electric Vehicle Conductive Coupler –Work to develop a universal coupler–Data Transfer. The Society of Automotive Engineers plans to vote on the J1772 standard for equipment to charge plug-in hybrid and all-electric cars the week of October 26, a move that would make it easier for consumers to refuel cars. The SAE has been working on the standard for the past two and half years.
                            • SAE-J1711 Recommended Practice for Measuring the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles
                            • SAE-J1715 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) & Electric Vehicle (EV) Terminology
                            • SAE-J1772 SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler
                            • SAE-J2344 Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Safety
                            • SAE-J2464 Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing
                            • SAE - J2787 Hybrid Terminology
                            • SAE J2836 - Recommended Practice for Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid. Provides the automotive standards for Vehicle to Utility communications message structures and formats. Will adopt Smart Energy Profile 2.0 Message structures. Primary purpose of J2836 is grid-optimized energy transfer for plug-in electric vehicles–that is, ensuring that vehicle operators have sufficient energy for driving while managing charging of vehicles in ways that minimize stress upon the grid.
                              • SAE-J2836/1 - Use Cases for Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid
                              • SAE-J2836/2 Use Cases for Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Supply Equipment (EVSE)
                              • SAE-J2836/3 Use Cases for Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid for Reverse Power Flow
                            • SAE-J2847 - The purpose of J2847 is to document the set of use cases which must be supported by J2836. This includes three use cases
                              • Time of Use (TOU) pricing demand side management programs
                              • Discrete Event demand side management program (Direct Load Control)
                              • Periodic/Hourly Pricing Price Response program
                              Also addresses the following requirements: secure two-way communication with the Energy Services Communication Interface (i.e., Utility), time- or price-based charging preferences based on current electric rate/tier, vehicle charging at any voltage, vehicle roaming and unified billing infrastructure, and customer override/opt-out.
                            • SAE-J2894 Power Quality Requirements and test methods for Plug In Vehicle Chargers
                            • SAE-J2907 Power rating method for automotive electric propulsion motor and power electronics sub-system
                            • SAE-J2908 Power rating method for hybrid-electric and battery electric vehicle propulsion
                          9. Sub Meter - A meter that measures a sub load, such as a plug-in electric vehicle.
                          10. UL - Underwriters Laboratories - A nonprofit, independent organization that develops standards for product safety and conducts testing activities based on its own and other test procedures.
                            • UL 1741 - Standard for Inverters, Converters, and Controllers for Use in Independent Power Systems. Combines product safety requirements with the utility interconnection requirements developed in the IEEE 1547 standard to provide a testing standard to evaluate and certify distributed generation products.
                          11. ZigBee Smart Energy Profile - Application Layer developed by ZigBee Alliance for communications specification for AMI meters to control all smart loads on the Home Area Network
                            • Smart Energy Profile 1.0 is basis for developing a Standard Application Layer for Utility AMI which will include PEV bi-directional communications
                            • Smart Energy Profile Version 2.0 will be an open standard. Standard Application Layer will facilitate multiple media transport options (i.e. OnStar, Sync) It will be simultaneously synchronized with SAE J2836 PEV Communications Recommended Practice



                          Smart Grid Interoperability Roadmap - Electric Transportation Track
                          (Source: Connectivity Week)

                          3. Business Case
                          FERC has said that it intends for the smart grid to accommodate a wide array of advanced options for EV interaction with the grid. It has encouraged NIST to focus on the development of standards, or extensions of current standards, to provide at least the minimum communications and interoperability requirements that are necessary to permit distribution utilities to facilitate vehicle charging during off peak load periods. Upgrades to dated communications systems between EVs and the grid need to occur.

                          The current grid and market infrastructure cannot support mass deployments of PEVs. There are very special issues to consider when designing for massive PEV support. The introduction of millions of mobile electricity charging and discharging devices provides unique challenges to every domain on the Smart Grid. A thorough and careful analysis of PEV introduction is necessary, and the Smart Grid architects and standards organizations must take special care to consider it in their designs. NIST is focused on the following Use Cases in section 4.6.2

                          1. Customer Does Not Enroll in Any PEV-Specific Program - The customer plugs a PEV into electrical connections that do not have smart meters or any other communications capabilities. The PEV may or may not be registered in a program, but cannot take full advantage of it without a smart meter. The utility has neither direct knowledge of the PEV load nor any real-time or near-real-time information on PEV charging, due to the lack of communications.
                          2. Utility/ESP Develops Different Tariffs and Service Programs - The utility or Energy Services Provider develops a variety of PEV programs, based on different tariffs, different types and levels of services, different PEV response capabilities and requirements, as well as different rate structures for Time-of-Use (TOU), Real-Time Pricing (RTP), Critical Peak Pricing (CPP), Peak Demand Limited, Customer Demand Limited, Unlimited, Pre-Payment, No Roaming, etc.
                          3. PEV Charges After Customer Establishes Charging Parameters - PEV customers have different methods for establishing how and when their PEVs are charged, depending upon their location and constraints.
                          4. PEV Charges at Different Locations: Roaming Scenarios - The customer plugs the PEV into the grid at a location different from their “home” location. Different scenarios address who and how the PEV charging will be accounted for and billed.
                          5. PEV Roaming, Assuming Unbundled Retail Electricity Reselling - One possible scenario may occur if regulators decide to unbundle retail electricity. This would permit customers to store electricity during low price times (e.g. at night) and resell it to PEVs during higher price times (e.g. during hot afternoons) for a profit
                          6. PEV for On-Premise Backup Power or Other Use of Storage - Customers may use the electric storage available from PEVs for uses other than powering the vehicle. These other applications include:
                            • V to G: Electric utility may be willing to purchase energy from customer during periods of peak demand
                            • V to H: Use of the PEV as a home generator during periods of electrical service outage
                            • V to L: Use of the PEV storage to provide power to a remote site or load that does not otherwise have electrical service. Examples include construction sites or camp sites.
                            • V to V: Use of the PEV storage to transfer electrical energy to another PEV
                          7. Utility Provides Accounting Services to PEV Customer - Based on the PEV program and tariff that the PEV customer has enrolled in, the utility or other accounting entity will issue bills to those PEV customers as well as providing other customer accounting services. These bills will be based on on-premise and off-premise meter (and/or sub-meter) readings for the appropriate time periods with the appropriate prices applied.
                          8. Impact of PEV as Load on Distribution Operations - Distribution operations will need to access all available sources of information on when, where, and how fast PEVs are charging, particularly as this load becomes increasingly more significant at local and more global levels.
                          9. PEV Network Testing, Diagnostics, and Maintenance - As part of PEV Program services, the ESP provides services for testing, running diagnostics, and providing maintenance for the customer’s PEV interface system (EVSE) and battery.

                          4. Benefits
                          5. Risks/Issues
                          NIST identified three principle gaps in the area of Electric Transportation and the Smart Grid.
                          1. Payment Schemes - Models for settlement of energy costs and payments are developing slowly, with significant technical and policy/regulatory barriers. Proposals range from complex schemes for billing back to the driver’s (or the owner’s) home utility, simple charging as with current gasoline stations, to mixtures of prepaid and billed services as with cellular phones. When charging stations are ubiquitous, these issues will become even more important.
                          2. Mobile loads stress the distribution infrastructure. Similar approaches to those used for non-mobile loads point to two related gaps: a common model for Demand-Response signals (grid safety, and pricing for demand shaping), and a common model for price, energy characteristics, and time for use. There are alternatives, including very specific demand control mechanisms, but the benefits of applying economic demand shaping appear to be much greater, particularly given the growth of Demand-Response use in other customer areas.
                          3. V2G - NIST recognizes that electric transportation will have a dual role as both a load to be managed and as a potential power source. Additionally, the impact of the PEVs on the planning and the management distribution system and its impact on system protection should be considered.

                          6. Success Criteria
                          • Communications Infrastructure - PEVs will require reliable and secure communications with the equipment within customer premises and with utilities and energy service providers, in order to manage the different tariffs and service programs which would allow PEVs to participate in demand response and other interactive programs.
                          • Feedback on Charging - Distribution operations will need to access all available sources of information on when, where, and how fast PEVs are charging, particularly as this load becomes increasingly more significant at local and more global levels.
                          • Analysis Tools - Distribution operations will also need power system models and appropriate analysis tools. First the raw load data (and any load forecast data) must be mapped to the power system model. Then the analysis tools will need to estimate the real load (and power system topology and facilities connectivity).
                          Roadmap Analysis Process (Source: NIST Smart Grid Roadmap)

                          7. Next Steps
                          • Develop and standardize common object models – SAE is developing the requirements as well as providing the definitions for data exchanges of PEVs, chargers, metering equipment, registration equipment, and other PEV-related equipment. However, they need to pass these data requirements and definitions to a standards organization for mapping into actual object models. NIST shall communicate with SAE, IEEE, IEC, UCA, OASIS to identify and select a Standard Development Organization for pricing model, DR signal standard, and scheduling standard.

                          • Develop storage device electrical interconnection guidelines. NIST plans to issue a request to IEEE SCC 21 that the IEEE 1547 working group recruit domain experts in energy storage devices and update or augment the 1547 standards series as appropriate to accommodate energy storage system specific requirements. Coordination with UL and SAE may be required for electric vehicle based storage systems.

                          • Develop storage device specific common information model. NIST plans to issue a request to IEC TC 57 WG17 to recruit domain experts in energy storage devices and update or augment the 61850-7-420 standard as appropriate to accommodate energy storage system specific requirements.

                          • Both utilities and automotive manufacturers have agreed to jointly pursue standardization activity that will enable the PEVs to act as just another appliance on the AMI or HAN. Two activities within SAE, under J2836 (use cases) and J2847 (data specification) with extensive automotive and utility participation, are in the process of defining the requirements for PEV to Smart Grid communications, which will enable the PEVs to be utility-controllable distributed resources for load shifting, demand response, and pricing-signaling purposes.

                          • ZigBee Alliance and HomePlug Alliance have created the Smart Energy Initiative, which is crafting the Smart Energy 2.0 (SE2.0) specification for AMI and HAN applicability. SAEJ2836/J2847 and SE2.0 teams are working together to coordinate the data exchange requirements between Smart Grid and PEVs. A draft Marketing Requirements Document (MRD) and Technical Requirements Document (TRD) are currently being refined for late 2010 ratification.

                          • SE2.0 and J2847 are expected to define a consistent set of data specifications for the charging load of the PEVs to be controllable by the same utility load management systems that determine demand response and load control signals for other loads, such as air conditioners, smart thermostats, or other smart appliances. The SAEJ2836 use cases include enabling PEV owners to enroll into utility demand response, load control and special incentive pricing programs and then program their vehicles to accept or reject utility requests for participating in demand response, load control and critical peak pricing-related events.

                          • In August 2011, Ford and Toyota announced that the car companies are working together on standards for the next-generation of networking and Internet-connected services in their vehicles. The standards they are working on would cover areas like connectivity for WiFi and bluetooth in the car, and back-end infrastructure that provides the data for the in-vehicle services.

                          8. Companies
                          • California Cars Initiative, Palo Alto CA - A nonprofit startup of entrepreneurs, engineers, environmentalists and consumers promoting 100+MPG PHEV. Somewhat uniquely, they see themselves as a hybrid, focusing both on public policy and technology development, and harnessing buyer demand to help commercialize PHEVs.
                          • The Electrification Coalition is a nonpartisan, not-for-profit organization committed to promoting policies and actions that will facilitate the deployment of electric vehicles on a mass scale. 

                            Their manifesto states By 2040, 75 percent of the light-duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in the United States should be electric miles. As a result, oil consumption in the lightduty fleet would be reduced to just 2.0 mbd, compared to today’s level of 8.6 mbd, and it is conceivable that U.S. oil imports could effectively be reduced to zero.

                            Members of the Electrification Coalition include:
                            Timothy E. Conver, Chairman, President & CEO, AeroVironment, Inc. (JPX.DE)
                            Peter L. Corsell, CEO, GridPoint, Inc.
                            David W. Crane, President & CEO, NRG Energy, Inc. (NYSE: NRG)
                            Kevin Czinger, President & CEO, Coda Automotive
                            Peter A. Darbee, Chairman, CEO & President, PG&E Corporation (NYSE: PCG)
                            Seifi Ghasemi, Chairman & CEO, Rockwood Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: ROC)
                            Carlos Ghosn, President & CEO, Nissan Motor Company, Ltd.
                            Ray Lane, Managing Partner, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers
                            Richard Lowenthal, Founder & CEO, Coulomb Technologies, Inc.
                            Alex A. Molinaroli, Chairman, Johnson Controls-Saft and President, Johnson Controls Power Solutions (NYSE: JCI)
                            Reuben Munger, Chairman, Bright Automotive, Inc.
                            Frederick W. Smith, Chairman, President & CEO, FedEx Corporation (NYSE: FDX)
                            David P. Vieau, President & CEO, A123 Systems, Inc. (Nasdaq: AONE)

                            As its first official act, the Coalition released the Electrification Roadmap, a sweeping report detailing the dangers of oil dependence, explaining the benefits of electrification, describing the challenges facing electric cars, and providing specific policy proposals to overcome those challenges. PRTM, a global management consulting firm, provided market analysis and technical input for the Roadmap, including detailed modeling on vehicle costs.


                          9. Links

                          Thursday, August 18, 2011

                          Field Area Network Standards

                          As we move away from the central generation supply model, the distribution portion of the grid will have to be more connected in order to manage distributed generation and storage energy resources.
                          IEC 61850 - The horizontal layers are the three components to an information exchange model for retrieving data from the field, namely, the abstract information models, the service models, and the communication protocol profiles that the abstract information models are mapped into. The different IEC 61850 information models are shown as vertical bars

                          Navigate this Report
                          Back to Network & Interoperability Index
                          1. Background
                          2. Acronyms/Definitions
                          3. Business Case
                          4. Benefits
                          5. Risks/Issues
                          6. Success Factors
                          7. Next Steps
                          8. Companies
                          9. Links

                          1.Background
                          • In most areas, the existing U.S. power grid is operated with proprietary systems that are fragmented and isolated. Attempts to create interoperable systems often fail because there is no third-party certification of conformance.
                          • Two ways to network the smart grid have been commercially implemented:
                            • One solution is neighborhood-sized mesh networks of smart meters and other devices, all communicating with radios using unlicensed spectrum, all owned and controlled by the utility in question. This approach led by Silver Spring Networks has become the technology of choice for utilities installing millions of smart meters around the United States. Silver Spring, along with companies such as Trilliant and smart meter maker Itron, has gotten utilities' attention with a technology that's cheap and reliable. What they've had to trade off on are some of the capabilities of that network, such as greater bandwidth and lower latency, that is, higher speed of communications.
                            • Another approach typified by San Francisco-based Grid Net, on the other hand, is backing WiMax, a contender for the next-generation of technology for public wireless networks. While still sparse in North America, a WiMax network could offer utilities a high-speed, high-bandwidth network, built on mass-produced, standards-based equipment, all operating on licensed spectrum that they could rent, instead of build. While WiFi is seen as too expensive and power-hungry to serve as a cost-effective communications technology for individual meters, it does make sense as an aggregation network in denser, more urban areas.
                            • Still another startup, SmartSynch Inc. in Jackson, Mississippi, has joined forces with AT&T Inc. to shoot data across that carrier’s cellular telephone network.
                          • Standards development has been fragmented in different groups across the industry due to the diversity of environments, with no formal architecture in place. Standardized interfaces for devices are lacking. In addition, there is no communications standards oversight committee to ensure compliance and certification of data sensor devices, communication network devices, and applications.
                          • A variety of proprietary solutions are available – OK as long as boundaries (well defined points of interoperability) are standards based
                          • Standards exist, but not always suitable. Customers in dense urban environments need different technologies than those scattered across rural islands of power delivery, and reading meters every 15 minutes or hourly is a lot different than throwing distribution grid switches on a fraction of a second's notice.
                          • Cable, cellular, telephone, ISPs are trying to be there

                          2. Acronyms/Definitions
                          1. 4.9 GHz Band - In 2003 the FCC assigned the 4940-4990 MHz frequency band for Public Safety use.

                          2. ANSI C12.19 - Table-based data model for electricity metering products

                          3. ANSI C12.22 - Networked communications standards for electricity metering products

                          4. ASHRAE SSPC 135 - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standing Standard Project Committee 135 – Developed and supports BACnet - A Data Communication Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks. BACnet is an American national standard, a European standard, a national standard in more than 30 countries, and an ISO global standard.

                          5. CIM – Common Information Model – Collective definition for information exchange standards with the goals of permitting model exchanges, load flow calculation exchanges, and driving toward operation and control data exchanges.

                            1. IEC61968 - contains the CIM for business-to-business exchanges of information

                            2. IEC 61970 - Generic Interfaces Definition (GID) and the CIM

                          6. COMTRADE - Fault Capture file format
                          7. DNP3 - Distributed Network Protocol - For actual device level communications and interfaces, DNP3 is typically used now and it is expected that this will continue for some time. Most popular in North America.
                          8. ICCP TASE.2 – Inter Control Center Protocol - Telecontrol Application Service Element - Has been standardized under the IEC 60870-6 specifications and allows for data exchange over WANs between a utility control center and other control centers and utilities.

                          9. IEC TC8 - International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 8 - System aspects for electrical energy supply. They have groups focused on the technical standard aspects of attaching generation and storage to distribution systems

                          10. IEC 61850 – Object models, self-describing, high speed relaying, process bus. Originally for substation equipment monitoring, operation and control and currently being expanded.

                            • Substation automation (IEC 61850-7-4)
                            • Large hydro plants (IEC 61850-7-410)
                            • Distributed energy resources (DER) (IEC 61850-7-420)
                            • Distribution automation (under development)
                            • PHEV and additional DER (under development)
                          11. IEC 62351 - Relatively new standards for security for power systems. Security objectives include authentication of data transfer through digital signatures, ensuring only authenticated access, prevention of eavesdropping, prevention of playback and spoofing, and intrusion detection.

                          12. IEC 62056 - Series provides a competing set of metering protocols. DLMS or Device Language Message Specification is the suite of standards developed and maintained by the DLMS User Association and has been co-opted by the IEC TC13 WG14 into the IEC 62056 series of standards. COSEM or Companion Specification for Energy Metering, includes a set of specifications that defines the Transport and Application Layers of the DLMS protocol.
                          13. IEC TC57 WG10 – Power System IED Communication and Associated Data Models< /li>
                          14. IEC TC57 WG14 - International Electrotechnical Commission, Technical Committee 57, Working Group 14 - System Interfaces for Distribution Management - Developing a series of standards (IEC 61968) that facilitate application to application (A2A) and business to business (B2B) integration for electric utilities. These standards facilitate information exchange among systems supporting business functions for planning, constructing, maintaining, and operating the electric transmission and distribution (T&D) network.


                          15. IEEE 1547 - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems) is a standard of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers meant to provide a set of criteria and requirements for the interconnection of distributed generation resources into the power grid


                          16. IEEE 1547.8 - New Electrical Connectivity Standard for High Penetration of DER - High penetration of DER will require some additional communications requirements. Proposed idea is that these DER communications requirements be based on the “sensitivity” of its
                            environment:
                            – Size and capabilities of the DER system itself
                            – Distribution system configuration and characteristics
                            – Location of the DER PCC with respect to the circuit’s configuration
                            – Sizes and capabilities of neighboring DER systems
                            – Requirements of the transmission system for support from the distribution systems
                            – The regulatory and financial environment of the utility, including utility economics, energy infrastructure and legacy systems.

                          17. IEEE SCC21 - Standards Coordinating Committee on Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage. Has groups focused on the technical standard aspects of attaching generation and storage to distribution systems


                          18. Modbus – Standard in the electrical world which evolved from process automation. A serial communications protocol published by Modicon in 1979 for use with its programmable logic controllers (PLCs). It has become a de facto standard communications protocol in industry, and is now the most commonly available means of connecting industrial electronic devices.


                          19. MultiSpeak –An industry-wide software standard created by (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) that facilitates interoperability of diverse business and automation applications used in electric utilities.


                          20. NASPI - North American SynchroPhasor Initiative -
                            Working to advance the application of information and communications systems within the electric power industry.


                          21. NASPInet– A distributed architecture linking the providers of synchrophasor data (publishers) with applications (subscribers) using a publish-and-subscribe middleware and data bus concept. Currently, NASPInet architecture is at a conceptual design phase and a detailed specification is under development.

                          22. NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association The leading trade association in the US representing the interests of manufacturers of products used in the generation, transmission and distribution, control, and end-use of electricity. NEMA publishes more than 500 standards, application guides, and technical papers

                          23. OASIS - Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards is a not-for-profit consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. The consortium produces more Web services standards than any other organization along with standards for security, e-business, and standardization efforts in the public sector and for application-specific markets.


                          24. PQDIF - Power Quality file format


                          25. UCAIug (UCA International User’s Group) IEC 61850 committee - composed of experts that meet semiannually to discuss how the compliance of products to IEC 61850 is demonstrated. To do that, the committee validates that the standard tests are applied in a consistent, transparent, and fair manner, thereby ensuring that conforming products meet the goals of the standard.


                          26. WiMAX - A fourth generation technology that was developed in the IEEE. It is not well-deployed in the United States. It’s on a process of rolling out throughout the United States but it's quite well-deployed in other countries. And it's gaining fairly strong momentum.


                          3. Business Case
                          • NIST has received input identifying issues and priorities both individually from the many stakeholders. Based on this preliminary input, the priority areas in transmission and distribution for the development of the Smart Grid are:
                            1. Integration of distributed energy resources (DER), and demand response (DR), including renewable energy sources, energy storage, and electric vehicles
                            2. Grid reliability and management.
                          • NIST plans to bring together IEC-TC57 WG14, WG10, IEEE SCC21 and OASIS architects to develop the framework for the amendment and extension of extend IEC 61968, IEC 61850, and IEEE 1547 to account for device profiles and discovery. Ensure that web services methods are harmonized among the candidate standards. Ensure that the standards are scalable for systems such as AMI and HAN.
                          • NIST plans to work with IEC TC57, NEMA, ASHRAE SPC 135, and OASIS to devise a common semantic model using XML Schema and XML. The objective will be to unify the models of CIM (IEC61970, IEC61968) and IEC 61850 including correspondences with ANSI C12.19 and ASHRAE 135 to form a common representation of information models constructed by these standards efforts for the Smart Grid.

                          4. Benefits 5. Risks/Issues
                          • Latency in grid monitoring - A delay of 2 seconds or more before a grid operator sees an event is not uncommon, and this may be too late to take action to control system instability, leading to a blackout.
                          •  Legacy Integration -Utilities that attempt to deploy Smart Grid applications universally across their service area must first deal with the automation they have already deployed. Most utilities have several “islands of automation” in place, developed on a project-by-project basis over the years. Automation projects have tended to be “spotty” and incomplete due to a lack of a business case, especially in the distribution environment. Now that the business environment for widespread automation is improved, system engineers must find ways to incorporate these legacy systems into the new Smart Grid.
                          • Technology Obsolesce - Many of the technologies used in legacy systems are becoming obsolete and are no longer supported. The “technology time warp” in the power industry is such that many technologies considered “advanced” by utilities are already considered to be aging and on the way out in general computing environments. Examples of such technologies are SONET, Frame Relay, 10Mbit Ethernet, trunked radio and even leased telephone lines. Many older technologies, such as Bell 202 modems, are now essentially only found in utility automation. Smart Grid deployments must find a way to either integrate or replace these systems.
                          • Enterprise application integration. This area represents a particular interoperability weak spot because the current state of the art is an extremely manual, labor-intensive process that is very dependent on the utility’s existing information infrastructure and the utility’s business practices.
                          • IP Bandwidth Requirements - Difficult to deploy Internet Protocols. Must solve the cost/range/speed/reliability puzzle.
                          • Lack of Common Definitions - There is a clear need for developing a common semantic representation for distribution assets, equipment, interfaces, and characteristics. This would include building a semantic bridge between the two most widely implemented standard data models -- MultiSpeak and IEC 61968 CIM.
                          • Transmission Substations and Intertie Stations Issues
                            • Advanced standards for field equipment automation are proposed, but lack designs and implementations that use these standards.
                            • There are legacy standards that at present cannot meet Smart Grid requirements. Standards are also in different stages of maturity with no migration pathways yet established to reach Smart Grid goals

                          6. Success Factors
                          • Accuracy & Timeliness - Utility managers need an architecture that provides access to a universal set of timely data, and visibility of system operations of the entire organization. Accuracy and timeliness depend not just on which database the data is drawn from, but when that database was refreshed and so on.

                            Without such a management system, utility management has what one utility executive has described as “ten thousand versions of the truth.” At any particular point in time, a utility manager in an energy control center must ask, “What is real, right now?” With inadequate, incomplete, and/or out-of-date information, the definition of reality becomes skewed and highly subjective. At a minimum, management decisions that rely on a subjective interpretation of reality lose effectiveness, with risks escalating from there.

                          • Common Library of Definitions that is used across all Smart Grid systems and use cases.

                          • Model Driven Approach that improves human understanding of Smart Grid domains and links human readable models with implementations.

                          • Internet Protocols where applicable and practical. Capable of running on any conceivable IP network (i.e., wired networks such as fiber and Ethernet, or wireless networks such as 3G, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, or LTE).

                          • Low Latency - Capable of operating at near real-time speeds -- at 100 milliseconds or less. Instant communication will be needed to support the functionality of an advanced smart grid.

                          • Interoperability - Support all electric devices (e.g., transformers, feeders, switches, capacitor banks, meters, inverters) from any vendor, because utilities are unlikely to settle for a reduced set of options when it comes to finding the right devices and applications to run their grids.

                          • Testing Framework - A robust, accepted conformity testing framework to allow stakeholders to test products for compliance with a particular standard with a reference implementation to test the standard as it is being developed.

                          • Affordabilty - It has to be economically competitive on a total cost of ownership basis: it must be more affordable than a dedicated multi-network solution it intends to replace and offer the lowest total cost of ownership (TCO).

                          7. Next Steps
                          1. Develop a Common Semantic Model – - The two major standards players in this area, the IEC 61968/61970 CIM standards and MultiSpeak, approach these problems from different directions.
                            • The CIM standards do not attempt to provide plug-and-play interoperability, but instead define a “tool kit” that can be used to develop a set of essentially new protocols. An analogy for this process is that CIM defines a common set of words, but utilities must create their own rules for creating sentences from these words. One utility’s implementation cannot talk to that of another utility if they have not worked together from the start of the project to define the same rules.
                            • MultiSpeak developed for and by smaller co-op utilities with no resources to develop their own protocols, takes the opposite approach. It rigidly defines an interface in a very clear manner but this interface does not take into account the possible variations of information infrastructure at the utility. Although it provides interoperability between vendors very quickly, its feature set is limited and not easy to expand.
                            • The solution to these problems of course lies somewhere between these two extremes, and both technologies will likely converge. However, the problem is time.
                            • Working Group 14 of IEC TC57 has developed a roadmap for development of the IEC 61968 CIM to support distribution smart grid applications. This includes implementing a CIM profile for MultiSpeak. Accelerating this development will permit interoperability between a wide variety of smart grid applications that require access to common data and information and will also provide interoperability between MultiSpeak- and CIM-compliant applications. Such interoperation will make it easier for electric utilities to leverage investment in enterprise applications.
                          2. Develop Interoperability Standards for the IEC 61970 CIM - Common Information Model . The CIM for transmission (IEC 61970) does not specify formats or messaging methods for exchanging CIM information, thereby requiring each implementation to develop their own formats and messaging requirements. The IEC 61970 CIM for transmission is strictly an abstract model with no standardized mechanism for mapping the information model to communication formats and messages, thus making different implementation not interoperable. If CIM format and messaging standards were developed, then CIM implementations could be interoperable.
                          3. Revise and update parts of IEC 61968 Common Information Model (CIM) for distribution. CIM for distribution has recently developed some messaging schemes for exchanging CIM information interoperably. However, earlier parts of IEC 61968 do not yet have interoperable messaging schemes. The IEC 61968 CIM for distribution is currently not usable except for the very latest part (Part 9), since the messaging schemes and the CIM model were not well enough defined to allow vendors to implement them. However, if these older parts are revised, then interoperability of the messages may be achieved. These revisions are in the IEC TC57 WG14 roadmap, but will need significant effort to achieve.
                          4. Expand IEC 61968 CIM for DER and PHEV. Although IEC 61850-7-420 for DER has been completed (with more DER models still pending, including PHEV), no CIM models for any DER or PHEV have yet been developed. IEC 61850 is designed for field communications, while CIM is for enterprise communications. Therefore, CIM models need to carry the 61850 models of DER into the enterprise.
                          5. Expand MultiSpeak. MultiSpeak, developed by NRECA and very successfully implemented for many smaller utilities, is being expanded as version 4, with more updates to come. MultiSpeak meets the requirements of the smaller utilities very effectively, but needs to be expanded to meet additional requirements for more functionality, more flexibility, more use of information modeling techniques, and more compatibility with IEC 61968.
                          6. Extend and Integrate DNP3 - In the short term, standardized approaches for network management, cyber security, and managing point lists using DNP3 are needed. This would essentially apply some of the important principles of IEC 61850 to DNP3 applications. In the longer term, migration to IEC 61850 for distribution management applications will require a number of important extensions and developments.
                          7. Harmonize IEC 61850, and ANSI C12.19 and C12.22, which will be published soon.
                          8. Extend IEC 61850 between substations. Some protective relaying and certain other functions require communications between substations, for which 61850 should be used. IEC 61850 is designed to be used within substations. However, functions such as protective relaying need to communicate between substations. The same protocol should be used for this function.
                          9. Extend IEC 61850 from the substation to the control center. Since the data in the substation uses the 61850 information model, this data should be reported to the control center using the same information model. IEC 61850 models all the equipment and functions in the substation. If those models could be brought back to the control center, then this same powerful information model would be used for SCADA and other applications, thus minimizing translations and expensive and data maintenance activities that sometimes lead to insecure and/or unsafe situations.
                          10. Extend IEC 61850 to distribution automation. This is under development but does not have the impetus to move forward quickly. IEC 61850 is an information model, so it is widely seen as the best approach to communications with field equipment. Given that premise, the information model needs to be expanded into additional areas, including distribution automation.
                          11. Extend IEC 61850 for more Distributed Energy Resource (DER) equipment. Currently IEC 61850-7-420 for DER covers wind (actually IEC 62400-25), photovoltaic systems, fuel cells, diesel generators, batteries, and combined heat and power (CHP). Needs extension to PHEV, additional storage devices, microturbines, gas turbines, etc.
                          12. Develop an IEC 61850-lite, in which the information models can be mapped to a protocol with less overhead than the current MMS-based mapping. Distribution automation and DER devices may have only narrowband communications channels or limited data exchanges due to data costs if telecommunication providers are providing the communication channels. In addition, some inexpensive devices may not want or need to implement the full IEC 61850 capabilities, in order to minimize compute constraints or development costs.
                          13. Continued Innovation in radio technology
                          14. Develop Testing - Develop neutral hosted vendor interoperability testing to demonstrate interoperability based on the CIM profiles. Ensure that requirements developed by groups such as UCAIug AMI-ENT are included. Ensure that profiles account for capabilities inherent in both.

                          8. Companies
                          1. DLMS User Association - (Device Language Message Specification) Maintains a liaison since 2002 with IEC TC 13 WG 14, the standardization body responsible for establishing standards for electricity meter data exchange. The User Association provides registration and maintenance services for the IEC 62056 DLMS / COSEM standards suite, performs pre-standardization work. In addition, the DLMS UA operates the conformance testing scheme. The DLMS/COSEM standard suite (IEC 62056 /EN 13757-1) is the most widely accepted international standard for utility meter data exchange. This global acceptance is clearly demonstrated by the continued fast growth of the membership, now exceeding 150, and an increase in the number of meter types certified to be DLMS / COSEM compliant.

                          2. Green Energy Corp. Denver, Colorado - Provides products and software engineering services to utility, energy, and communication companies to enable the Smart Grid. The GreenBus® platform allows for rapid development of utility applications and is the only open source solution that supports interoperability of legacy and new applications. GreenBus was designed to provide a clear pathway for utilities to incrementally adopt smart technology without disrupting the performance of today’s dated, but still reliable grid. At the core of GreenBus is a secure middleware platform that captures extremely high-volume, real-time field device data and interconnects that data with operations and business systems. The GreenBus real-time data collection system includes data capture adaptors that are standards-based (DNP3, Modbus and IEC 61850), or customized for hundreds of legacy devices.
                            Greenbus Platform
                            In July 2011, Green Energy announced that it has been awarded $2,000,000 in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding from the Colorado Governor’s Energy Office Revolving Loan Fund that will provide working capital for Green Energy Corp to continue development and marketing of the GreenBus® Smart Grid software platform.

                          3. Grid Net- San Francisco- Makes open, interoperable, policy-based network management software and 4G wireless communications products for the Smart Grid. Motorola, GE and Grid Net are part of a group of companies looking to bring a WiMax 4G-based smart grid program to Australia. Officials with the companies say the initiative will be the first smart grid based on the WiMax wireless platform. The program includes the installation of smart meters in almost 700,000 households and businesses in Australia by 2013.

                          4. Qualcomm - San Diego, CA - In July, Qualcomm launched a joint venture with Verizon Wireless to bring new "machine-to-machine" devices and services to market, as part of what Qualcomm CEO Paul Jacobs insisted was a major push by the San Diego-based company into the "Internet of thing

                            In Qualcomm's case, those things include electricity grid distribution equipment built by Swiss giant ABB, hydrogen fueling stations by Air Products, water treatments monitoring systems from Siemens, and systems to monitor air compressors from Gardner Denver

                            At the heart of the new joint venture is Qualcomm global smart services, a name for the business Qualcomm took over when it bought nPhase, a pioneer in the business of getting machines to talk to each other over wireless networks, in November 2006.

                          5. Silver Spring Networks - Redwood City -

                          6. Tropos Networks, Sunnyvale, CA, A long-time municipal WiFi provider which is making a push into networking utility smart grid projects, providing the link between neighborhood smart meter networks and utility "backhaul" networks. In May 2011, Tropos announced new fixed mesh and mobile mesh routers, increasing its line of products that support the 4.9 GHz spectrum. Today, licensed spectrum choices often come with limitations such as narrow spectrum availability and poor performance characteristics. Earlier this year, the Utilities Telecom Council (UTC) proposed changes to the FCC that would make it easier for utilities to utilize the 4.9 GHz band currently allocated for use by public safety agencies. But even without the rule changes proposed, a municipal utility can apply to obtain access to the 4.9 GHz licensed spectrum in their area.

                            In August 2011, Tropos Networks and Taiwan-based Billion Electric Co. announced they will merge their network and communications technologies to provide Asian power utilities with a hybrid smart communications network they say is reliable, scalable and high-performance.

                            Under the terms of the new partnership, Billion will market and support Tropos' secure wide-area network smart grid solution. The offering means utilities can take advantage of Billion's PLC/BPL and Tropos' IEEE 802.11 mesh broadband network technologies to aggregate communications for a variety of smart grid applications like advanced metering, distribution automation, substation security, mobile workforce and more. Also, the Tropos Wi-Fi mesh system can be used as reliable backhaul communications infrastructure for Billion's existing PLC/BPL-based neighborhood communications technologies.

                          8. Links