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3. Business Case
6. Success Factors
7. Next (in this case Future) Steps
- Lighting is single largest building load representing 29% of non-residential use according to DOE. Approximately $32 billion of the $90 billion that is spent on electricity for commercial buildings gets spent on lighting. The overall purpose of lighting controls is to eliminate waste while providing a productive visual environment. This entails:
- Providing the right amount of light. This decision is based on the type of tasks being performed in the space. Lighting controls provide flexibility in adapting the lighting system to different uses and individual preference, either through dimming or through bi- or multi-level switching. Dimming provides the greatest amount of flexibility in light level adjustment.
- Providing that light where it’s needed. This entails establishing control zones, which is a light fixture or group of fixtures controlled simultaneously as a single entity by a single controller. Zones are typically established based on types of tasks to be lighted, lighting schedules, architectural finishes/furnishings, and daylight availability. Generally, the smaller the control zone, the greater the control resolution and potential utility cost savings and the greater the opportunity to enable the lighting system to support visual needs.
- Providing that light when it’s needed - If occupancy is predictable, a switching system can be scheduled to automatically shut off the lights by area, by floor or in an entire building. If occupancy is not predictable, occupancy sensors can be used to automatically turn on and shut off lights in areas depending on whether the sensor detects the presence or absence of people in the monitored area.
Why the disparity? It’s not that lighting control systems are a new concept, or that their value is unproven – quite the opposite. Lighting is the second largest driver of energy consumption in buildings (behind heating and cooling), and scores of real-life examples over the last 20 years speak to the ability of advanced lighting controls to save money and energy. Yet centralized control systems for lighting is still rare.
The expense of lighting control systems is certainly a factor, yet advanced building management systems have managed to justify their expense to become a trusted part of a facility manager’s toolkit.
Meanwhile, the lighting controls industry has remained stuck in a world of incompatible systems. Most advanced lighting controls systems on the market today can’t talk to one another. Customers buy one company’s control system and are forced to use that company’s specialized sensors, dimmers, ballasts or LED drivers. The communications between these devices is proprietary –- so the devices have to be proprietary as well.
One reason for this may be traditional fragmentation of the construction process, with lighting control specified by electrical engineers (Division 16) separately from EMS specified by mechanical engineers (Division 15). But this is changing due to rising energy costs and the proliferation of energy codes requiring that interior lighting be turned off when it’s not being used.
- ADC – Automatic Dimming Control (aka Continuous Dimming) This method controls 0-10 VDC dimmable ballasts. Control sequence:
- No daylight is available; the dimmable ballast operates at full bright level (10 VDC).
- Increasing daylight begins to contribute to the overall light level; the ballast is dimmed proportionally.
- Sufficient daylight is present to maintain the set-point; the ballast is held at its full dim setting (0 VDC).
- Daylight levels drop into the dimming range (deadband); the dim level of the ballast is reduced proportionally.
- Daylight levels fall below the set-point; the ballast is back to full bright level (10 VDC).
- Automatic Shade Controls – Block direct solar radiation. Balance in the goals. Automated portion is critical. Need to subdivide into shade control zones. If you were sitting on Eastern perimeter in the morning, then you would expect the shades to come down, but on the western side, you would expect the shades to be up in the morning. Solar tracking measure system with sensors
- Maximize natural light in the space
- Maintain a glare free environment
- Maintain thermal comfort
A natural lighting system that brings in full-spectrum, natural daylight to a building's interior. Provides maximum color perception, enhances object definition and is easier on the eyes. Daylighting is also cooler, containing half as much heat per unit of illumination as artificial light sources
- Open Areas (Occupancy, no switches,. Daylighting, Target setponts)
- Conference Rooms
- Daylighting (Daylit Zones)
- Occupancy (Occupancy Sensor)
- Target Setpoint – light level tuning
- Dimmable Wall Mounted Switches
- Emergency Lights
- Time Clocks
- Closed Loop Operation - When the photocell in a sensor can view and provide feedback on the lights it controls.
- Open Loop Operation - When the sensor does not have feedback on the controlled lights and often works on a timer
|Sample Strategies: Above are six sample strategies defined according to whether they are dimming or switching, local or centralized, and manual or automatic.|
3. Business Case
- A Smart Grid is a key enabler in integrating smart building controls with the goal of peak reduction. Daylighting introduces and controls natural daylight into interior spaces reducing levels of electric lighting, minimizing glare, and optimizing lighting quality. However, Total Lighting Management includes much more than just daylighting.
- Lower Operating Costs – New York Times Building Example
- Reduced light level load 150,000 kW hrs / year / floor = $22,500 @ $0.15/kW hr
- HVAC savings due to lower lighting energy = $7,500 / year / floor
- Total energy savings = $30,000 / year/ floor
- Lighting Markets
- Office Buildings – Lighting energy usage is the greatest
- Daylight + occupancy + light level tuning energy savings @ 70% below code
- Improved Worker Productivity and Creativity - Good lighting schemes promote good productivity. Natural sunlight reduces building energy spend, improves productivity and improves environment for building occupants. In an efficient office, people can see better what they’re doing, hear themselves think, breathe cleaner air and feel more comfortable. Studies have found as much as 16% more and better work which is worth far more than the total energy bill.
- Flexible Designs – Building needs to be able to be changed so people can work in different ways. Accommodate restacking without too much cost.
- Faster Healing - Better clinical outcomes in hospitals.
- Improved Sales - Well day lit retail shops can find as much as 40% higher sales per square foot.
- Better Learning - Well day lit schools can find as much as 25% faster learning.
Store Daylighting Energy Savings• Turn lights off up to 80% yearly
• Extend lamp and ballast life
• Reduce HVAC demand• Save on annual maintenance
- Trust - Lighting designers, architects and engineers have been burnt by lighting controls before. Their customers were stuck with control systems that don’t work, can’t be fixed or are too complicated to even try. Their level of trust is low, and needs to be earned.
- Glare – If we opened up daylighting in an office building to the maximum extent in order to save energy, we would introduce so much natural light that people would be unable to work on their computers. This would decrease productivity. It would not enhance the way we work. Daylighting is only a sub-set of total light management.
- Tyranny of the Few - Without automatic controls, shades will often find there way down to the ground and they were never raised again.
- Myopia of Strict ROI Approach – Wouldn’t know what costs would be if went down two different roads
- False Triggering of Sensors
- Sensitivity too high
- Sensor range (distance) too large for space
- Passive infrared sensors triggered by non-human heat sources
- Ultrasonic sensors triggered by fans
- Interoperability Standards If lighting control connections were standardized, the communications between devices would use an open industry protocol – be it a wired one, or a wireless one like ZigBee. Any control system using the standard could take inputs from any sensor or wall switch, and could control any luminaire – LED, fluorescent and other sources. And any vendor can easily build products that work with that standard, increasing their sales opportunities and allowing them to focus on building the best products for the market.
- Automated Shades
- Luminance – for glare control
- Lighting Controls – Focus on workplane eluminance levels. Overlap of multiple lights in space
- Lighting Sequences
- Emergency Lights
- Demand Response is a natural module within a total light management system Take down with a single keystroke
- Project Management
- Build relationships between Owner, Engineer, Design Team, Commissioning Team
- Train the contractors
- Value Engineering
- Multiple Shade Bands per Motor
- Design Fixtures for easy sensor connection
- Maximize wiring in factory, vs. in building installation
- Adura Technologies - San Francisco, CA - Partly born from research at UC Berkeley, Adura emerged in 2008 with a unit for controlling lights. Adura’s technology uses ZigBee modules. Individual modules are attached to fluorescent or LED light fixtures; these speak to other gateways and controllers and other devices that try to orchestrate lighting in a building..
In September 2009, Adura released the first version of ALPS – the Adura LightPoint System – for commercial sale and hoped to have the lighting for 300,000 to 400,000 square feet of commercial real estate under its control by the end of that year.
They hit a bumpy patch, but have adjusted their strategy and overhauled their technology. In 2010, Bolick was ousted, investors started to bring in new management, competitors like Redwood Systems and Daintree Networks began to pop up and the technology needed to be overhauled. More recently, co-founder Zach Gentry departed for competitor enLighted (sic).
Adura remains far from the 100-million-square-feet milestone, but it has definitely made strides, according to Mark Golan, who left Johnson Controls to become Adura’s CEO in March. The company’s technology controls the lights illuminating 2.7 million square feet of commercial real estate.
The technology overhaul has also trimmed the cost and improved the effectiveness of the system, says CTO Andy Wheeler. (Wheeler previously worked at Tendril and Ember and invented the embedded technology used in Zipcar.) Early versions of the gateway could only manage 50 light fixtures at time. While that sounds like a lot, it isn’t. U.S. office ceilings are heavily populated with separate light fixtures. In a large building, the number of gateways required would balloon the budget: the hardware is cheap, but the bill for installation and ongoing commissioning can be high. The new gateway can manage 250 light fixtures. “We are covering most floors with one or two gateways. We will get to 1,000,” said Wheeler. “The hardware was in need of some redesign.”
The company still has a long way to go. So far, around one-third of Adura’s deployments involve parking garages. Only 500,000 square feet of office space has been colonized. Thus, the company hasn’t fully cracked the majority segment of commercial real estate.
- Daintree Networks - Mountain View, CA and Melbourne, Australia. - Provides wireless lighting control solutions for energy-smart buildings. Wireless mesh networking removes the need for dedicated wiring to deliver controls, and instead send control signals over the air. With wireless, complicated control strategies are delivered simply and at a faster payback, which makes them more attainable for end users. Wireless is especially relevant for retrofit situations, where access to wires within walls and plenums, and introduction of new wires, can be difficult, expensive, and in some cases impossible.
Daintree raised $8 million in 2010 from Lend Lease and $4 million in venture capital debt financing in 2011. Daintree’s existing list of partners includes Cree, Albeo, Easylite, and Philips company Crescent Stonco, as well as partners like CentraLite, which makes occupancy sensors and plug controllers, that could extend the platform’s scope beyond lights
Daintree has stood out against its competition by promising to base its light fixture network on the low-power wireless ZigBee protocol, where most competitors have built at least partly proprietary solutions. It’s a testament to the company’s 2003 founding as a maker of software and hardware to test other companies' ZigBee technology.
Sylvania Lighting Services, the installation affiliate of lighting giant Osram Sylvania, announced on April 10, 2012 that it will “design, install, commission and support” Daintree’s technology in its projects, starting with a large 320,000-square-foot deployment for a first, unnamed, customer.
- Easylite - Boulder, CO -- The Easylite Integrated Lighting System offers economical dimming and scheduled on-off control of general building fluorescent lighting through low voltage control. All Easylite ballasts are ‘dimming’ with the capability to proportionally control the lamp output from 100% down to 10%. The Easylite ILS system includes: dimming ballasts, low voltage local dimmers, daylight harvesters, occupancy sensors, pre-terminated plug-in control cabling, and scheduling software or seamless interoperability with all building automation systems.
- Echoflex Solutions - Squamish, British Columbia, Canada- Incorporated in 2005, Echoflex became one of the first companies in North America to begin developing products based on a new wireless technology from Europe called EnOcean. EnOcean is a unique technology; integrating innovations in harvesting and storing energy with low-power radio technologies.
- EnLighted - Sunnyvale, CA - Has developed a lighting control system that is actively aware of environment and lighting needs. A per fixture sensor gives the Enlighted system the granularity to light only the work area needed. It intelligently decides what lights to dim, brighten, turn on or off. With dynamic and adaptive profiles the system can light hallways, bathrooms, and work areas with just the right amount of light needed only where it is needed.
Zach Gentry, co-founder of lighting networking specialist Adura Technologies, is now at enLighted, which also makes lighting controls. EnLighted was founded by Tushar Dave from NewPath Ventures. NewPath, founded by Vinod Dham, specializes in Indian investments and has put money into Nevis Networks and others.
It installs wireless sensor and control lighting fixtures that are projected to shave 50 percent to 70 percent from anticipated lighting bills, via enhanced occupancy sensing, daylight harvesting and adjusting light levels to suit the specific use of each lighted workspace. Enlighted is doing similar projects for customers including Interface Global, the carpet tile manufacturer.
Enlighted’s sensors are providing data to the buildings’ HVAC system from Consolidated Electrical Contractors, allowing the buildings to adjust heating, cooling and ventilation energy use based on temperature readings coming from every lighting fixture.
- LUMEnergi - Newark, CA - Manufactures dimming electronic ballast and sophisticated lighting controls which will drive cost savings of over 50% through to building owners’ bottom lines, while increasing occupant comfort and enhancing building valuation. The company has replaced a lot of the analog components inside a ballast and replaced them with digital microprocessors. By going digital, Lumenergi can reduce the current going into the electrode without the light dropping off entirely. The digital ballast is then rigged into a computer network.
Dimming can be used in a variety of ways. For starters, Lumenergi recommends that building owners put their lights on at 80 percent as standard practice. Building owners can also link the system into demand response networks that will dim the lights automatically (but slowly) during peak periods. Task and spot lighting can be employed to dim lights in common areas, or those lit by natural sunlight.
- Lutron - Cooperberg, PA-- The Lutron story began in 1959 when Joel Spira invented the solid state dimmer.
- Redwood Systems - Fremont, CA - Replaces lighting wires and regular light bulbs with low voltage wires and LEDs. Low voltage can't power regular bulbs, but it can be used to power light emitting diodes, or LEDs, in part because LEDs only consume 7 to 12 watts of power. Suddenly, you have a network in your ceiling that every light, smoke detector and other device can link into. The company, has received money from Battery Ventures and others. Founders hail from Grand Junction Networks, the Fast Ethernet pioneer turned gold mine for Cisco when acquired in 1995.
Redwood Systems has begun to add applications to its basic technology platform to make it more appealing. One of the favorite applications is one that lets employees better manage conference room reservations. A retailer wants to employ it to monitor how many people are in line at any given time. In other words, non-energy applications. Mike Dauber at Battery Ventures, an investor in Redwood, recently speculated that large customers may have trouble getting excited about efficiency.
In February 2012, Redwood Systems announced on that it has expanded its lighting controls product line to support all lighting fixture types, rather than just LEDs. The company is not being bearish about the future; rather, it is acknowledging the present. There are a lot of different lights out there, most of which are not LEDs, and customers are looking for solutions that can give them controls even if they’re not ready for a full LED retrofit.
Redwood’s new product has a universal gateway that will turn fixtures on or off through a 0- to 10-volt signal that goes to a dimmable ballast or an external relay. There are also sensors that can pick up on occupancy data, temperature, humidity and light levels. The sensors connect with the gateway, which then send information back over Ethernet for monitoring and controls.
- Universal Lighting Technologies - Nashville, TN -- The global leader in ballasts and controls for commercial lighting applications — including LED, electronic linear fluorescent, HID, compact fluorescent solutions and more. Universal Lighting Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Panasonic Corporation Eco Solutions Company and part of the Panasonic family of companies.
8. Future Steps
- What if every light bulb in the world could also transmit data? At TEDGlobal July 2011, Harald Haas demonstrates, for the first time, a device that could do exactly that. By flickering the light from a single LED, a change too quick for the human eye to detect, he can transmit far more data than a cellular tower -- and do it in a way that's more efficient, secure and widespread.
- NTCIP (National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol) - Object Definitions for Electrical and Lighting Management Systems (ELMS) - An ELMS is any system that is able to automatically control and manage roadside electrical and lighting devices using the National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Protocol (NTCIP). In general, an ELMS is composed of a set of field devices (luminaires, electric circuits, etc.), that are controlled by one or more management stations (computing platforms).
Added to NIST's list of approved Smart Grid standards in September 2009.
- June 29, 2009 Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0000082 entitled "Recovery Act - Solid State Lighting Core Technologies - Round VI." Contract Specialist: Jacqulyn Wilson. Application due date is August 10, 2009. Questions regarding the content of the announcement must be submitted through FedConnect.
- Heschong Mahone Group has completed a second suite of major human performance studies on behalf of the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program. These include: a study of how sky-lighting effects the sales at a second chain retailer; how physical comfort conditions in classrooms are associated with student learning at Fresno Unified School District; and how windows and how physical comfort conditions are related to office worker performance at Sacramento Municipal Utility District offices
- Saving Energy with Total Light Management (Webinar) - Glenn D. Hughes – Lighting Manager for New York Times Building Project completed in 2007 For more information on the New York Times project visit www.lutron.com/NYT
- AboutLightingControl.org - Integrating Lighting and Building Control