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3. Business Case
6. Next Steps
Sept 23, 2013 Update - Added to Definitions: S. 1392 (Shaheen D-NH/Portman R-OH) The Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013. This bill setting voluntary building codes, establishing industrial assistance program and ordering federal agencies to reduce their energy use was designed to be small, an effort to "put some points on the board," as Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) puts it-- and to demonstrate that the Senate could pass an energy bill for the first time since 2007. If it passed, supporters said, maybe that would herald hope for a new era of small-bore energy bills that could make it through a fractured Congress. However, it being held up by an unrelated amendment from Sen David Vitter (R-LA) to repeal Obamacare.
|Status of State Commercial Energy Codes Source: DOE EERE as of April 5, 2012|
- Energy codes can vary greatly from state to state and even from edition to edition of codes developed by the same authority. Some of the codes in place are state developed, and take into account state-specific concerns such as climate, the state's economy and history, and impact on local building communities. Many other states adopt state-specific amendments to the national model codes. The codes are not a static document and, while national model codes are published every 3 years, they are almost constantly under revision to improve compliance, implementation, and enforcement for everyone involved in the building process.
- Energy codes generally provide two methods for compliance. The first, and most common method is referred to as the prescriptive approach. In this approach, a structure must be built to the prescribed insulation and other values found in the code. Trade-offs are allowed between certain building components that have different energy performances, giving an added degree of flexibility.
- The alternative method of compliance is the performance approach. Using this process, a structure is allocated an energy budget, or total allowable energy use, and can use a combination of different insulation values and equipment efficiencies in order to meet this budget. The overall energy performance of the structure, and not the individual components, is what matters. For example, a builder can use less insulation but a more efficient furnace to meet the allocated energy budget for the structure.
- Building a new power plant can cost over $2000 per each kilowatt it can produce. By comparison, each kilowatt saved by an investment in an energy-efficient building costs only about $300. Despite general agreement that energy efficient structures are a good thing, surprising obstacles remain. Building regulations in the US are localized in the US have created literally several thousand different code specifications which in essence fragment the construction market, contribute to manufacturing inefficiencies and increase costs.
- ACH - Air Changes per Hour - Amout of outside air infultration or leakage in a building. Measured by a Blower Door test for envelope tightness at 50 pascals or 0.20 inches. Minimum of 0.35 ACH is required for IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) 2008 Title 24 requires mechanical ventilation on new residential construction.
- ASHRAE - American Society of Heating and Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers - The organization that creates standards for building engineers.
- ASHRAE -IEC 90.1 Building Code - Many states use IEC 90.1 as a base for state specific amendments. Commercial building energy codes are based on ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings, jointly developed by ASHRAE and the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES). ASHRAE Standard 90.1 applies to all buildings, except residential buildings less than three stories, and provides minimum requirements for the design of energy efficient buildings. Recent work from ASHRAE has resulted in a series of new efficiency standards and Advanced Energy Design Guidelines.
- BBEES - Big Bold Energy Efficiency Strategy
- All new residential construction in California will be zero net energy by 2020;
- All new commercial construction in California will be zero net energy by 2030;
- CalGreen -voluntary tiers intended for local government adoption
- ‡ Tier 1 is one code cycle in advance of Title 24, Part 6 2016
CALGreen Tier 1 should be ZNE
- ‡ Tier 2 is two cycles in advance of Title 24, Part 6 - ƒ 2013
CALGreen Tier 2 should be ZNE
- Prescriptive Approach - Lists the minimum R-value or maximum U-factor requirements for each building component such as windows, walls, and roofs. This approach is quick and easy to use, but many users find it somewhat restrictive because the requirements typically are based on worst-case assumptions and all requirements must be met exactly as specified. The prescriptive approach allows quick review of the requirements.
- Trade-Off Approach - Allows you to trade enhanced energy efficiency in one component against decreased energy efficiency in another component. You can, for example, trade decreased wall efficiency (lower R-value) for increased window efficiency (lower U-factor), or increase the roof insulation and reduce or eliminate slab-edge insulation. Typically, this method is less restrictive than prescriptive approaches because components that exceed the requirements can compensate for those that do not meet the code. If these requirements are too restrictive, try a trade-off approach. For example, if the window area of the building exceeds that allowed by the prescriptive approach, a trade-off approach might work.
- Systems Performance Approach - Allows you to compare your proposed design to a baseline or reference design and demonstrate that the proposed design is at least as efficient as the baseline in terms of annual energy use. This approach allows greater flexibility but requires considerably more effort. A performance approach is often necessary to obtain credit for special features, such as passive solar design, photovoltaic cells, thermal energy storage, and fuel cells. This approach requires an annual energy analysis for the proposed design and the reference design. If nontraditional components are used or if energy use trade-off between building systems (e.g., envelope, mechanical) is desired, then use the performance approach.
Energy codes cover areas of construction such as wall and ceiling insulation, window and door specifications, Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) equipment efficiency, as well as lighting fixtures and controls. In some sense, energy codes are different compared to other building codes. They do not exist to protect the immediate health and safety of the building occupants in the same way as other codes. Implementing energy codes results in a reduced demand for energy.
- Energy Reduction Goals for Federal Buildings
- Facility Management/Benchmarking
- Performance and Standards for New Building and Major Renovations
- High-Performance Buildings
- Energy Savings Performance Contracts
- Energy-Efficient Product Procurement
- Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Reporting
- Reducing Petroleum/Increasing Alternative Fuel Use
- New ballast efficiency standards,
- set criteria for up to $0.0225 per SF tax deduction for efficient buildings
- Tax deduction of $0.60 per sf for lighting systems that are 40% better than 90.1-2001 and have dual level switching.
- Green roofs are explicitly recommended for government buildings.
- Zero-net-energy goals are to be incorporated into the process of buying or leasing new government properties.
- As of 2020, all planning for new Federal buildings requires design specifications that achieve Zero-Net-Energy use by 2030.
- Large government buildings have to start showing progress by 2015. More specifically, at least 15 percent of any agency's existing buildings and building leases above 5,000 gross square feet must conform to Zero-Net-Energy by Fiscal Year 2015. Ongoing improvement is required.
- Historic buildings may be retrofit to comply with the order.
The final rule also establishes a requirement for new Federal buildings to achieve a level of energy efficiency 30% greater than 90.1-2004 when life-cycle cost-effective. If the additional 30% savings is not life-cycle cost-effective, an agency must evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternate designs at successive decrements below 30% (e.g., 25%, 20%, etc.) in order to identify the most life-cycle cost-effective design for that building.
GreenTRIP provide a one-page scorecard that shows whether the developer is doing much more to ensure transportation for the life of a project and is sponsored by TransForm, a Bay Area group that advocates public transportation and walkable communities.
Projects receive points for having features such as bike racks, proximity to bike lanes and public transportation and for providing transit passes and car-sharing access to residents for 40 years. Other programs, such as LEED, reward points for projects that provide car sharing and transit passes for three years. The new program also rewards developers who require buyers or renters to pay separately for a parking spot instead of including it in the purchase price of the unit or the rent.
- Guiding the production of consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale
- Ensuring that any audit or rating include reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency
- Establishing labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings
- Proposing a technique for determining energy efficiency measure cost-effectiveness
- Proposing a technique to develop recommendations for energy efficiency improvements, including cross checking against utility bills,
- A mandatory air infiltration test in all homes to ensure building envelope efficiency
- A requirement that ducts be tested to a tighter duct leakage standard
- An increase in stringency for insulation and glazing efficiency requirements
- A set of options to solve the problem of "stranding"–and therefore wasting–heated water: keeping pipes "short and skinny," or insulating them to avoid waste
- The elimination of a former duplication of model energy codes between the IECC and the International Residential Code, streamlining the process into a singular, efficient path to residential compliance
- Comprehensive revisions to IECC's Chapter 5, including the compliance option to choose between high performance lighting, high performance HVAC equipment, or onsite renewable power generation
- More efficient air leakage requirements by requiring continuous air barriers for the building envelope
- A commissioning requirement for HVAC systems
- Increased efficiency of the opaque thermal envelope provisions
- Increased fenestration efficiency
- Mandated automatic daylighting controls for buildings with a window-to-wall ratio over 30%
- A requirement for skylights and daylighting controls for spaces over 10,000 ft2 in certain building types
- Added efficiency requirements for cooling towers
- Increased minimum efficiency requirements for certain HVAC equipment
- Increased HVAC piping insulation provisions
- In the 2009 Residential Standard, if primary heating system is a forced-air furnace, then at least one programmable thermostat/dwelling unit is required
- Capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55ºF (13ºC) or up to 85ºF (29ºC)
- Initially programmed with heating temperature set point no higher than 70ºF (21ºC) and cooling temperature set point no lower than 78ºF (26ºC)
The genesis of the system was the Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), In 1996, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) published BREEAM Canada for Existing Buildings.
The Green Globes system is used in Canada and the USA. In the USA, Green Globes is operated by the Green Building Initiative (GBI). In Canada, the version for existing buildings is operated by BOMA Canada under the brand name 'BOMA BESt'. The Green Globes system has also been used by the Continental Association for Building Automation (CABA) to power a building intelligence tool, called Building Intelligence Quotient ( BiQ).
Green Globes is being supported as an alternative to LEED by trade industry associations due in large part to proposed LEED v4 integration of EU's REACH standards and credits for disclosure of chemicals in products and avoidance of chemicals of concern.
USGBC is placing a greater focus on data collection. In the past, LEED hasn't fully collected and analyzed data on things like energy and water savings, reduced runoff or air quality. This new emphasis on building performance management will also help the long-term success of LEED certified projects. Building owners will be encouraged to maintain their buildings better, so that investments in green tech reach their full potential in the energy savings or other benefits
To help projects reach a higher standard of sustainability, LEED v4 also introduces new "impact categories," which are climate change, human health, water resources, biodiversity, green economy, community and natural resources.
New building types include: data centers, warehouses and distribution centers, hospitality, existing schools, existing retail and mid-rise residential projects.
LEED credit submittal requirements have been simplified, descriptive step-by-step reference guide materials with videos and tutorials, and a more intuitive technology platform have been added.
Among the biggest changes are those in the Materials and Resources (MR) category. Even though this category carries relatively few points (about 10% of the total in most Building Design & Construction rating systems), it has the most direct impact on major building material markets with their associated economic and ecological impacts, so this category is a lightening rod for controversy.
LEED v4 rewards both disclosure of chemicals in products and avoidance of chemicals of concern in its new credits.
USGBC has stuck with its strong commitment to the Forest Stewardship Council as the minimum standard for wood product certification. It has, however, backed off in the May 2012 draft from a credit that included PVC—the plastic most widely used in buildings—among the substances to be avoided. That’s a function of a decision to reference the European REACH list for that credit. PVC remains among the substances that would have to be disclosed, based on the lists in Clean Production Action’s Green Screen Benchmark.
LEED V4 introduces a more sophisticated approach to many of the materials credits, replacing simple proxies for environmental benefit, such as recycled content and rapidly renewable materials, with requirements that call for life-cycle assessment, disclosure of ingredients, and avoidance of problem chemicals.
These new approaches are challenging because tools and protocols for meeting these requirements are not yet widely available. USGBC is responding to this situation in several ways:
- Introducing a pilot projects program and extended phase-in period for all of LEED 2012, so that only project teams that want to knock themselves out pioneering these new practices have to do so;
- Pointing out that building commissioning and energy modeling were also not widely used when LEED began requiring them in 2000, so there is precedent for LEED creating this kind of infrastructure; and, to support that process,
- Offering credit in some cases for merely reporting on ingredients and LCA results, regardless of how good those results are. This approach amounts to a big vote for transparency and support for developing data sources and tools, in the hopes that future versions of LEED will be able to make use of widely available data to set rigorous thresholds.
- Using the EU's REACH standard as a base (which is creating political problems of its own)
The USGBC responds that it is not a standard-setting organization; it gathers the best third-party standards in order to transform the market in the service of healthy and sustainable built environments. Unfortunately, on the subject of safer chemicals, there is no equivalent U.S. standard to REACH.
- REACH is a complex chemical risk-management program that would present major compliance issues for U.S. building-materials suppliers and other parties with ties to building construction and renovation. Manufacturers currently face the task of complying with domestic regulatory requirements, and bringing the REACH program into the picture would add a whole new set of regulatory requirements.
- REACH presents a particularly difficult challenge for companies that do not currently export products to Europe and are not versed on the REACH program. This would disrupt the market and could severely limit the range of products that can be used while still meeting the LEED 2012 credit criteria.
- ACA also said USGBC has failed to give materials suppliers and other interested “stakeholders” adequate opportunity to participate in the credit-development process, with REACH added as criteria for credits only recently, at the time the fourth and final comment period was announced; the comment period began May 1.
- ACA urged USGBC to completely eliminate the credit category for avoidance of chemicals of concern, based on the reasons cited in the comments. The association also said proposed disclosure criteria for “chemicals of concern” would reveal proprietary information about products, a crucial issue for makers of formulated products that rely on technology advances to compete in the marketplace.
- ACA also called for revisions in several other parts of the LEED 2012 draft, including emissions testing for low-emitting interior products. Emissions testing as opposed to content requirements is not a practical or viable approach, and would adversely affect the availability of needed products that can comply with such testing, the association said.
- Demand Response is now Base LEED Credit in Version 4 -
- Enroll in minimum of one-year manual demand response program with an ISO, utility or curtailment service provider for 10 percent of estimated peak demand or a minimum of 20kW.
- If demand response isn’t available, you can simply put a plan in place to take advantage of it, or dynamic pricing plans, when it becomes available, although it is unclear whether this can score any actual credit.
- The second option is to have semi- or fully automated demand response for at least 10kW or 5 percent of peak electricity, although it still must meet a 10 percent load shed requirement overall. Semi-automated demand response -- which is defined by USGBC as a real person implementing an automated, pre-programmed DR plan (rather than someone shutting stuff off manually) -- was specified as being separate from a fully automated system.
When REACH is fully in force, it will require all companies manufacturing or importing chemical substances into the European Union in quantities of one tonne or more per year to register these substances with a new European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in Helsinki, Finland. Since REACH applies to some substances that are contained in objects (articles in REACH terminology), any company importing goods into Europe could be affected.
- Unvented Attic option
- Compressorless Comfort Home
Reported by Committee May 08, 2013, has not passed Senate as of Mar 1, 2014.
The chemical industry is lobbying vigorously under the guise of the “American High-Performance Building Coalition“ to insert an innocuous-sounding provision into the Senate’s Shaheen-Portman energy efficiency bill (S.761) that would prevent the U.S. government from using LEED. They are concerned about one or two points out of 100 that would reward the use of healthier building materials and have longer term fears about the precedent and what might become mandatory.
This bill setting voluntary building codes, establishing industrial assistance program and ordering federal agencies to reduce their energy use was designed to be small, an effort to "put some points on the board," as Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) puts it-- and to demonstrate that the Senate could pass an energy bill for the first time since 2007. If it passed, supporters said, maybe that would herald hope for a new era of small-bore energy bills that could make it through a fractured Congress. However, it was held up by an unrelated amendment from Sen David Vitter (R-LA). to repeal Obamacare.
Bill summary from the Congressional Research Service, a nonpartisan division of the Library of Congress:
Amends the Energy Conservation and Production Act to direct the Secretary of Energy (DOE) to:
- Support the development and updating of national model building energy codes for residential and commercial buildings to enable the achievement of aggregate energy savings targets established by this Act,
- Encourage and support the adoption by states and local governments of building energy codes that meet or exceed the national codes, and
- Support full compliance with state and local codes.
Requires the Secretary to make grants to eligible nonprofit partnerships to pay the federal share of career skills training programs to help students obtain a certification to install energy efficient buildings technologies.
Amends the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to:
- Replace references to the energy-intensive industries program with references to the future of industry program, and
- Reduce the amount authorized to be appropriated for the Zero Net Energy Commercial Buildings Initiative for FY2015-FY2018.
Requires the Administrator of the Small Business Administration (SBA) to expedite consideration of applications from eligible small businesses for loans under the Small Business Act to implement recommendations of industrial research and assessment centers.
Amends the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to require the Secretary:
- As part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, to conduct on-site technical assessments at the request of a manufacturer to identify opportunities for maximizing the energy efficiency of industrial processes and cross-cutting systems, preventing pollution and minimizing waste, improving efficient use of water in manufacturing processes, and conserving natural resources;
- As part of DOE's industrial efficiency programs, to carry out an industry-government partnership program to research, develop, and demonstrate new sustainable manufacturing and industrial technologies and processes that maximize the energy efficiency of industrial systems, reduce pollution, and conserve natural resources.
- A new constant speed electric motor control that is attached to an electric motor and reduces motor energy use by at least 5%; and
- Commercial or industrial machinery or equipment that is manufactured and incorporates an advanced motor and drive system that has greater than one horsepower into a redesigned machine or equipment that did not previously make use of the system or was previously used and placed back into service in 2014 or 2015 that upgrades the existing machine or equipment with such system.
Directs the Secretary to issue guidance for federal agencies to employ advanced tools promoting energy efficiency and energy savings through the use of information and communications technologies.
Authorizes the Administrator of the General Services Administration (GSA), for any building project for which congressional approval has been received and the design has been substantially completed, but the construction of which has not begun, to use appropriated funds to update the building's design to meet energy efficiency and other standards for new federal buildings.
Requires the Administrator for the Office of E-Government and Information Technology within the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to develop and publish a goal for the total amount of planned energy and cost savings and increased productivity by the government through the consolidation of federal data centers during the next five years.
Implementation has been postponed to July 1, 2014. This update to the code require single family residential buildings to be 25%, multi-family to be 14% and non-residential buildings to be 30% more energy efficient than the previous 2008 standard. Major changes include:
- Building Envelope
- Glazing - U 0.32/ SHGC 0.25
- Insulation/cool roofs - Wall Insulation R15 or R21+4 - Ceiling R30 or R38, Std - Roof Deck Insulation R4 or R8 in some CZ's. - Roof Reflectance (Tile Roof) 0.2
- Infiltration - (ACH50) 7.6 - Radiant Barrier/ Roof Ventilation RB/300
- System Efficiency
- HVAC - WHF in cooling dominated CZ - Night-Ventilation Systems
- Ducts - Duct Insulation R6 or R8 - Duct Ceiling & Testing Reqd.
- DHW - Compact design
- Verification of proper installation
- QII - Required.
- HERS inspections
- Equipment/Plug loads
- Lighting - ;High efficacy lighting in kitchens and bathrooms - Credit for 'higher-efficacy' lighting - Outdoor lighting controls
- Upgradeable Thermostats
- Solar (PV) Ready Houses
- Solar Oriented Development
Zero energy buildings can be used autonomously from the energy grid supply – energy can be harvested on-site usually in combination with energy producing technologies like Solar and Wind while reducing the overall use of energy with extremely efficient HVAC and Lighting technologies.
California has a ZNE goal for new homes by 2020 and commercial buildings by 2030. The ZNE goal means that new buildings must use a combination of improved efficiency and distributed renewable generation to meet 100 percent of their annual energy need.
There is not a consensus on exactly what ZNE means. Questions include:
- How is energy valued for trade-offs between different sources (natural gas, propane and electricity) and trade-offs with on-site renewable generation? Site, source, TDV?
- What energy consumption is included? Building operation, T-24 regulated only, embedded, transportation energy etc.?
- What is on-site renewable energy PV, hydro, fuel cells, biomass, landfill gas?
- What is on-site? Building site, development site, utility grid etc?
- How does definition or policy address sites that do not have access to renewable energy?
|Status of State Residential Energy Codes Source: DOE EERE as of April 5, 2012|
3. Business Case
These next steps are based on some of the 134 gaps identified in Standardization Roadmap, Energy Efficiency in the Built Environment prepared by the Energy Efficiency Standardization Coordination Collaborative of the American National Standards Institute. Version 1.0, Draft was made available for Public Comment January 2014
- According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the nation’s buildings account for more than 70 percent of total U.S. electricity use and roughly 40 percent of the nation’s total energy bill at a cost of $400 billion dollars per year. With 20 percent or more of this energy wasted, comparable reductions in energy could save an estimated $80 billion annually.
- The California Energy Commission adopted the 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (Title 24, Parts 1 and 6) on May 31, 2012, and they will become effective on July 1, 2014. The updates are expected to cut energy use 25 percent in new homes, 30 percent in new commercial buildings and 14 percent in multifamily residences. Changes include:
- Solar-ready roofs to allow homeowners to add solar photovoltaic panels at a future date. Provides an area on roof that is penetration and shade free. Exceptions include reduced solar zone area with demand response thermostat and no solar zone with high efficacy lighting and DR thermostat
- More efficient windows to allow increased sunlight, while decreasing heat gain
- Insulated hot water pipes, to save water and energy and reduce the time it takes to deliver hot water
- Whole house fans to cool homes and attics with evening air reducing the need for air conditioning load.
- Air conditioner installation verification to insure efficient operation. Improper installation of cooling systems reduces its efficiency. Having the installation verified by an independent inspection guarantees your air conditioner will operate as efficiently as designed
- High performance windows, sensors and controls that allow buildings to use "daylighting"
- Efficient process equipment in supermarkets, computer data centers, commercial kitchens, laboratories, and parking garages
- Advanced lighting controls to synchronize light levels with daylight and building occupancy, and provide demand response capability
- Occupant Controlled Smart Thermostat
- Setback thermostat plus communications and demand response capable
- Communications and DR can be built‐in or thermostat can be
upgradeable with modular components
- Communications Communications can can bebe turned turned on/off on/off byby occupant occupant
- Optional enrollment in DR services and programs enabled
- Occupant Occupant always always has has full full control control of of settings settings
- Solar-ready roofs to allow businesses to add solar photovoltaic panels at a future date
- Cool roof technologies Lighter colored roofing material re ects more of the sun’s heat energy away from the building. This reduces a bulding’s electricity bill by decreasing the amount of air conditioning required.
- High efficiency heating and cooling equipment To improve indoor comfort and reduce energy use, variable speed HVAC systems ef ciently match a building’s heating and cooling requirements to the building’s electricity budget
- The California Energy Commission adopted the 2008 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (Title 24, Parts 1 and 6) on April 23, 2008, and they became effective on January 1, 2010. Smart Grid, Building Information Modeling and Building Control related changes include:
- Revisions and clarifications to Section 119, Mandatory Requirements for Lighting Control Devices
- Revisions and clarification to Sections 130-134, Mandatory Requirements for Lighting Systems and Equipment related to Luminaire Power determination, sign lighting controls, and other clarifications
- Updates for compliance to require side-lighting (§131) and day-lit areas near windows, change definition of daylit area and requirements for daylighting controls. Update skylight requirements to include smaller buildings (8,000 sf vs 25,000 sf), buildings with 15 ft ceiling heights (§143(c))
- Add requirements for occupant sensors in new indoor areas including small offices, multipurpose rooms less than 1,000 sf, classrooms, and conference rooms (§132(d))
- Revising the Lighting Power Densities (LPDs) for Complete Building Method Type of Use categories and Area Category Function Areas for indoor lighting (§146)
- Update indoor lighting requirements for Tailored Method, including wall and floor display lighting, and revised LPDs based on metal halide (§146)
- Compliance credit for high efficacy load shedding ballasts to reduce energy use when signaled (§146)
- Demand response controls to reduce indoor lighting when signaled (§146)
- Update Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) to measure savings from energy efficiency standards at times of peak
- Refine acceptance testing requirements to ensure HVAC works properly, allow compliance credit for automatic fault detection diagnostic systems (NA7)
- New controls requirements for single-zone variable (adjustable) air volume equipment (§122)
- Expand direct digital control systems to zone level for HVAC systems, including demand shedding controls, hydronic pressure reset, VAV zone minimums, demand control ventilation, and supply air temperature reset (§121)
- Improve roof and attic modeling - Unconditioned Zone Model (UZM) - to better model thermal interactions in attic such as radiant barriers, cool roofs, and ducts
- Improved cross-flow prevention and pump protection for central hot water distribution systems in multifamily buildings with demand-control circulation loops (§113)
- Distributed Energy Storage as a new residential compliance option
- New Nonresidential Compliance Options
a. Fault Detection And Diagnostics For Air Handler Units, VAV, and Rooftop Units
b. Thermal Energy Storage
- Energy Efficiency - Improvements in energy efficiency are the cheapest and most environmentally-friendly
- Cleaner Environment - A reduction in pollution associated with the burning of fossil fuels in the home or in power plants.
- Improved National Security - An increase in national energy security, reductions in utility bills,
- Improved Reliability - Increased utility system reliability are also important benefits from the adoption of energy codes.
- For each year of construction activity (in both newly constructed buildings and alterations to existing buildings) the new Title 24 2008 standards are estimated to reduce the growth in electricity by 561.2 GWh and to reduce the growth in peak demand by 131.8 MW. In addition, natural gas use is expected to be reduced by 19.0 million therms. The savings will accumulate as the Standards affect each subsequent year of construction.
- Advantage to Consumers
- Advantages to Builders and Code Officials
- Advantages to Community and Society
- Challenges to LEED - A new coalition, the American High-Performance Buildings Coalition, is challenging the LEED rating system as the dominant standard for buildings. The coalition includes about 20 building industry trade organizations from the Adhesive and Sealant Council (ASC) to the Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI).
The group is lobbying the U.S. General Services Association (GSA), which requires the LEED standard for all federal buildings, to reconsider, opting instead to require the Green Globes standard They point to a March 2012 GSA study that shows that Green Globes aligns with more of the federal sustainability requirements than any other green building rating system for new construction – including LEED.
The GSA study evaluated and compared 180 third‐party green building certification systems for new construction, taking into account criteria outlined in the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings. The GSA commissioned the study in accordance with requirements set forth in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 436(h) to identify tools that could help federal agencies comply with the requirements mandated in Executive Order 13514 issued in 2009.
- Green Globes aligns at some level with more of the Federal requirements (25) than any other new construction system in the GSA review. The Green Globes system does not include two of the Federal requirements (benchmarking and building system controls).
- LEED aligns at some level with 20 Federal requirements. The LEED system does not include seven of the Federal requirements (integrated design,process water, benchmarking, moisture control, acoustics, building system controls and greenhouse gas emissions).
- The Living Building Challenge aligns at some level with 14 Federal requirements: The Living Building Challenge system does not include thirteen of the Federal requirements (integrated design, commissioning, water efficient products, measurement and verification, >benchmarking, recycled content, biobased content, thermal comfort, moisture control, indoor air quality protection during construction, acoustics, building system controls, and greenhouse gas)
- Green Globes CIEB aligns at some level with 22 Federal requirements. The Green Globes CIEB system does not include six of the Federal requirements (commissioning, recycled content, biobased content, low emitting materials, siting, and building system controls).
- LEED EBO&M aligns at some level with more of the Federal requirements (27) than any other existing building system in the GSA review. The LEED EBO&M system does not include one of the Federal requirements (greenhouse gas emissions).
- The Living Building Challenge aligns at some level with seventeen Federal requirements. The Living Building Challenge system does not include eleven of the Federal requirements (commissioning, water use, stormwater, water efficient products, measurement and verification, recycled content, biobased content, thermal comfort, integrated pest management, moisture control, acoustics and building system controls.)
- Green Globes and Living Building Challenge use on-site auditors to augment the certification information received electronically, while LEED bases its certification solely on the information submitted electronically.
- LEED has an established piloting process that is implemented prior to a revision to the certification system being released.
- LEED requires that new construction projects submit measured energy and water performance to the USGBC for five years following certification.
- The Living Building Challenge is designed to incorporate the results of at least the first year of a building’s operations prior to certification, which means this system has the greatest emphasis on measured performance.
- Measurement Equity - Home Performance measures Energy per Square Foot. A measure of energy use per resident would be more equitable. An energy efficient 4000 sqft mini-mansion with no one home can have a better score than an unimproved 1500 home with a family of four even though the later uses much less energy per person.
- Innovation - Codes and standards take a long time to adopt and modify they also tend to inhibit innovation and encourage the use of approved, but obsolete technology
- Flipping – The builder’s goal is to sell the building immediately after construction at the highest profit margin. The way buildings are constructed and financed emphasizes lowest first cost. Contractors The builder’s goal is t sell the building immediately
- Modeled vs. Actual Performance - The gap between designed (aka modeled) and actual building performance is one of the most important issues in green buildings and by extension the push to improve the energy efficiency of our economy.
- LEED "Box Ticking" - When it comes to energy efficiency, it is often the letter of the law is often used more than the spirit of the law. In LEED projects a comprehensive energy efficiency strategy built into the overall design and construction of a building could be “dumbed down” into a series of tag on efforts.
While some energy efficient measures might be taken, they aren’t necessarily ones that are strategically important in making a big dent in overall energy consumption. It becomes a box-ticking exercise more than a serious attempt to curtail energy use—changing the lightbulbs when you could transform the building. The sad truth is that many green buildings today are neither highly efficient nor particularly intelligent, and this is a missed opportunity. We have the potential to deliver green intelligent buildings that are sustainable as well as able to deliver high-performance, low-energy usage. A green intelligent building “not only has a bike rack, green roof and waterless urinals, but also the systems, controls and automation needed to provide improved scheduling, coordination, optimization and usability.
- Commercial Focus - Programs like LEED are geared more for commercial construction versus residential.
- Poor Quality Insulation - Title24 derates insulation performance by 30% (that is R30 is treated as R20) because in practice so many insulation installations are done wrong. The insulation installer is usually the lowest paid constration worker with the least training and often poor working conditions and is often working on a piece rate. Often, insulation building inspection is not required by building departments. QII, Quality Insulation Inspection, requires a third party HERS inspection.
- Lack of Context - A project can earn a high rating and be located in a hard-to-reach place or built on former open space.
- Compliance and Enforcement
- Lack of Inspection/Staff Time
- Interpretation Problems
- Inconsistent Interpretation
- Structural and Safety Codes are the priority
- Capacity and Training
|Source: IEPR Workshop California Energy Commission July 20, 2011|
|Source: IEPR Workshop California Energy Commission July 20, 2011|
- There is a need for standards that address supply chain and product embedded water–energy evaluations that can inform consumers of the energy and water intensity of the building systems, products, or services they buy. There is currently no recognized consistent methodology for the way building systems, products, and services are evaluated as to their overall water and energy footprint. Architects, engineers, consumers, and companies wishing to proactively reduce their water and energy intensity often receive mixed messages as a result. Developing uniform standards that address the water and energy embedded in a system’s or
product’s supply chain would serve several purposes:
- Provide a needed consistent method that would allow proper cross-comparison of options for products and services;
- Smooth out the duplicative and competing footprint methodologies, some of which unfairly favor certain companies, processes, or products, and most of which do not correctly count both water and energy interactions back through the supply chain; and,
- Allow a deeper focus on systems, products, and services in the commercial and industrial sector where the combined water and
energy savings potential is very high.
- Provide a needed consistent method that would allow proper cross-comparison of options for products and services;
- There is a need to address detailing and integration of the building envelope at interface conditions – quite literally the 'gaps' between materials, components, and systems in a building enclosure. Perhaps more than any other single aspect of design and construction, improper detailing and installation at these conditions is the most common source of improperly managed heat/air/moisture transfer and a corresponding increase in energy use, operation, and maintenance costs over the lifecycle of a building. Work to address this gap should be conducted in the near-term: 0-2 years
- Thermal energy is a grossly underutilized resource in the United States relative to other developed countries. The development of an American National Standard for heat metering, led by ASTM International with cooperation from IAPMO, is currently underway. This standard will address a major gap in standardization, allowing for thermal technologies to be more easily utilized in residential and commercial buildings.
- Currently, there is considerable debate at codes and standards meetings in the industry regarding the minimum level of duct leakage testing that is required to improve efficiencies. Independently developed data pertaining to the practical levels of duct leakage testing is needed to guide standards developers to determine cost-effective provisions while avoiding unnecessary cost. ANSI recommended Timeline: This work should be conducted in the mid-term: 2-5 year
- Consensus standards for heat metering and hot water solar thermal systems need to be completed to advance the use of thermal technologies for water heating applications. This represents a significant and very achievable advancement in energy efficiency.
Recommended Timeline: This work should be conducted in the mid-term: 2-5 years.
- There is considerable pressure to further increase the water savings by requiring decreased flows and flush volumes. It has been shown that further reduction in water use can be achieved through more efficient plumbing component design. Nevertheless, there is little research available today that evaluates the impact of those designs on the plumbing system’s overall performance due to reduced flows in the system, and especially the drainage system. There are research projects underway in the U.S., notably the Plumbing Efficiency Research Coalition, that will help to determine “how low we can go” without negatively impacting public health and safety.
- 2013 California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Rulemaking Page
- LBL - Renewables Portfolio Standards A Factual Introduction to Experience from the United States
- California Energy Commission - Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards - The CEC’s web site provides access to the 2005 manuals, compliance forms and new outdoor lighting zones. The 2008 Standards which come into effect on August 1, 2009, are also available here.
- DOE – Building Energy Codes – An information resource on national model energy codes. DOE works with other government agencies, state and local jurisdictions, national code organizations, and industry to promote stronger building energy codes and helps states adopt, implement, and enforce those codes.
- DOE - Residential Requirements of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (PDF 2.9 MB)
- CBPCA.org - California Building Performance Contractors Association
- Davis Energy Group - Provider for the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED for Homes program for California and Nevada.
- Building Science - provides objective, high-quality information about buildings. This resource combines building physics, systems design concepts, and an awareness of sustainability to promote the design and construction of buildings that are more durable, healthier, more sustainable and more economical than most buildings built today.
- Green Building Certification System Review - US GSA March 2012
- Standardization Roadmap Energy Efficiency in the Built Environment Prepared by the Energy Efficiency Standardization Coordination Collaborative of the American National Standards Institute Version 1.0, Draft for Public Comment January 2014
- USGBA - The Newest Version of LEED