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3. Business Case
6. Success Factors
7. Next Steps
8. Case Studies
- Great interest and investment in electric vehicles is changing the future complexion of transportation and represents a significant demand for new products and services, including bi-directional information flow in AMI systems and smart charging systems. Today only 0.02% of light-duty vehicles are grid-connected, but most forecasts estimate ultimate penetration of this market at 8-16%, with some aggressive estimates at 37%, by 2020.
- Building an infrastructure for PHEV’s may seem somewhat futuristic, but it isn't. The first-generation plug-in hybrid vehicles (not counting the relatively small number that have been retrofitted by hobbyists and EV fanatics) hit the market in 2010. PHEVs and EVs require new supporting infrastructure, including charge stations in public locations including:
- Apartments, condominiums and hotel garages
- Employee parking locations
- Public lots and curbside
- AB 2565 - Rental property: electric vehicle charging stations - California law passed in August 2014 - Requires an owner of a commercial or residential property to approve the installation of an electric vehicle (EV) charging station if it meets specified requirements and complies with the owner's process for approving a modification to the property and makes a term in a lease of a commercial property, executed, renewed, or extended on or after January 1, 2015, void and unenforceable if it prohibits or unreasonably restricts the installation of an EV charging station in a parking space.
- Battery Exchange - Electric Vehicles are limited by the battery’s capacity and the time to recharge it. A battery exchange system is sometimes proposed as a solution; swapping a depleted battery for a fully charged one at an “electric filling station”. Battery exchange will work best when battery types are standardized and there is a relatively low number of vehicles. This model has been proposed for both Denmark and Israel and is part of the Project Better Place introduction strategy supported by Renault/Nissan.
- BDC - Battery Data Control - System that automatically adjusts charging rates to minimize charging time while maximizing battery life A maximum charge time is set as a backup to avoid overcharging. Incorporating battery power storage into current automobile frames will require systems to monitor the status of the battery including battery charge and temperature.
- Cell Reversal - Reversing polarity of terminals of a cell or battery due to over-discharge.
- Commercial Vehicle Depot Charging - It could be useful for the efficient operation of commercial vehicles to have access to three phase power for charging their high capacity batteries. The operational requirement for maximum usage of a vehicle will benefit from quick charge during a planned operational break such as reloading or driver lunch break. These connections should be available at most industrial or light commercial sites.
- Conductive Charging - Requires a connection via a plug like many household appliances.
- CHAdeMO (sometimes spelled CHΛdeMO) - The trade name of a quick charging method for battery electric vehicles delivering up to 62.5 kW of high-voltage direct current via a special electrical connector (500V and 125 amps). It is proposed as a global industry standard by an association of the same name. CHAdeMO is an abbreviation of “CHArge de MOve", equivalent to “charge for moving”, and is a pun for "O cha demo ikaga desuka" in Japanese, meaning “How about some tea” (while charging) in English. CHAdeMO was formed by The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Nissan, Mitsubishi and Fuji Heavy Industries (the manufacturer of Subaru vehicles). Toyota later joined as its fifth executive member. Three of these companies have developed electric vehicles that use TEPCO's DC connector for quick charging
- Deep Discharge - Discharge of the battery to below the specified voltage cutoff before the battery is replaced or recharged.
- DOD - Depth of Discharge - The percent of rated capacity to which a cell or battery is discharged. Normally stated as a percentage of the nominal ampere-hour capacity; 0% DOD means no discharge. DOD is the inverse of SOC: as one increases, the other decreases. While the SOC units are percent points (0% = empty; 100% = full), the units for DOD can be Ah (e.g.: 0 = full, 50 Ah = empty) or percent points (100% = empty; 0% = full). As a battery may actually have higher capacity than its nominal rating, it is possible for the DOD value to exceed the full value (e.g.: 52 Ah or 110%), something that is not possible when using SOC.
- Duty Cycle - The time duration and use frequency during which a battery is drained (i.e. 2 hours/day).
- EPS - Electrified Parking Spaces
- EVSE - Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment - The device that the vehicle connects to. Level I EVSEs are unique cord sets that integrate the EVSE and its required safety functionality into a box
connected in-line with the cord, and which can plug into a traditional 110 volt plug with a dedicated 15 amp circuit. Level II EVSEs need to be mounted and wired to an electrical panel at 220 volts.
Several safety issues will require the use of EVSEs instead of simple cords that connect an outlet to a vehicle. Properly designed EVSEs will ensure that vehicles are properly connected and grounded before power begins to flow; they will prevent a driver from pulling away while the vehicle is still plugged in; and for batteries that have out-gassing, they will necessitate proper ventilation for charging.
- Fast Charging Stations - Require more complex chargers than currently deployed commercially. Larger commercial vehicles would prefer to have three phase (65 amp) charging to ensure a quick turnaround of delivery vehicles; this is widely available on commercial premises but not elsewhere. Building in quick charge capability to a vehicle will however add further costs. Typically quick charge could take a battery from 20% to 80% capacity in 10 to 15 minutes but with potentially significant impacts on the generation and transmission/distribution networks. These chargers will be designed such that they can detect battery cell chemistries to prevent damage due to an inappropriate charging profile. The problems of supply attendant with fast charging are discussed in sections 6 and 8; these problems could be overcome by the siting of a substation close to any fast charging station, or by local energy storage at the station. With the initial growth of EVs in city areas, well distributed fast charging stations will afford a high degree of security for nervous potential users. For EVs to expand outside city areas these stations are essential.
Designed for commercial applications, these chargers range from 30 kW to 250 kW with the goal
of a complete charge in less than 10 minutes. Level III chargers will be significantly more expensive than Level I or II chargers and are expected to be available at commercial charging establishments. As an example, a Level III charger operating at 50 kW can fully charge a 24 kWh battery in approximately 25 minutes and could cost between $25,000 and $50,000. This happens to be about the same as the cost of a typical gas station pump. Fast charging rates will likely not be limited by the details of the standard, but rather by grid infrastructure capability and the tolerance of the battery chemistry.
- GFCI - Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter - An electrical wiring device that disconnects a circuit whenever it detects that the electric current is not balanced between the energized conductor and the return neutral conductor. Such an imbalance is sometimes caused by current leakage through the body of a person who is grounded and accidentally touching the energized part of the circuit. Also known as ground fault interrupter (GFI) , an appliance leakage current interrupter (ALCI) or residual current device (RCD)
- Home Charging - The most common location for charging an electric car will be at home utilising a 240V/13A or 16A connection. This will require a switchable socket and a surge protection device, but should not pose any problems for most homes.
- ICE – Internal Combustion Engine
- IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
- IEC 62196 - Standards for Plugs, socket-outlets and vehicle couplers - Conductive charging of electricity vehicles - Part 2: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers. Standard allows a 1 or 3-phase current up to 250Amp. AC.
- IEC 62196-2 Type 2 - Europe has yet to agree on a regional plug standard, which has the potential to restrain a market of consumers that are likely even more motivated to buy plug-in vehicles than those in the United States. The IEC has been working on the 62196-2 Type 2 plug standard for several years. This plug would enable charging at either single phase or three-phase AC power up to 43.5 kW that is available in many parts of Europe.
However, various camps in Germany, Italy, and France are at odds on the specification, and a June 2011 meeting to reconcile the differences proved futile. The German automakers are fairly unified around technology proposed by Mennekes Elektrotechnik as well as the European Automobile Manufacturer’s Association. Despite the lack of a European standard, EV charging infrastructure is currently being installed today, with hundreds of street-side charge spots that are “dumb” outlets that provide the available power from household current without the additional safety or smart charging features that will benefit consumers and utilities in North America.
The German contingency also wants a single plug standard that could handle fast direct current (DC) charging as well, which would result in a fairly large connector that some view as too unwieldy for consumers to safely operate. In Japan and the United States, automakers and equipment manufacturers believe that two charge ports on the vehicle, (CHAdeMO for DC charging, and J1772 or an alternative plug for residential charging) is acceptable to consumers.
- Inductive Charging - Requires no direct plugged connection, only proximity. Inductive charging carries a far lower risk of electrical shock, when compared with conductive charging, because there are no exposed conductors. The ability to fully enclose the charging connection also makes the approach attractive where water impermeability is required; for instance, for electric hygiene devices, such as toothbrushes and shavers, that are frequently used near or even in water. Inductive charging makes charging mobile devices and electric vehicles more convenient; rather than having to connect a power cable, the unit can be placed on or close to a charge plate.
The main disadvantages of inductive charging are its lower efficiency, higher cost and increased resistive heating in comparison to direct contact.
- JEVS G105-1993 (Japan Electric Vehicle Standard) from the (JARI) Japan Automobile Research Institute which was the basis for CHΛdeMO Level III charging. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has developed patented technology and a specification for high-voltage (up to 500 V DC) high-current (125 A) automotive fast charging via a JARI Level-3 DC fast charge connector.
- Level I Charging System – Uses the traditional 110 volt outlet. Though relatively slow, it may be sufficient for many PHEV owners.
- Level II Charging System -Specified at between 208 and 240 volts (the voltage used in many homes by clothes driers, ovens, and well pumps). The longer charges required by larger EV batteries will likely convince many consumers to opt for higher-power Level II charging.
- Level III Charging System - 480 V DC 125 amps. Also known as Fast Charging, Level 3 facilities utilize direct current. Most electric vehicles (EVs) have an on-board charger that uses a rectifier to transform alternating current from the electrical grid to direct current suitable for recharging the EV's battery pack. Cost and thermal issues limit how much power the rectifier can handle, so beyond around 240V and 75 Amp it is better for an external charging station to deliver direct current (DC) directly to the vehicle's battery pack. Level III will allow a fast charge for a driver who forgot to or was unable to charge overnight, or who is travelling beyond the range of the vehicle without the time to stop and wait for a slower charge. Level III chargers will also likely need to be deployed along intercity roads to provide charging opportunities for longer trips. While Level 1 and Level 2 charging uses the standard SAE J1772 plug, standards for Level 3 are under development.
- NEC 625 – National Electrial Code for Electric Vehicle Charging System I – General, II – Wiring Methods, III – Equipment Construction, IV – Control & Protection, V – EV Supply Equipment Locations
- Overcharge - The forcing of current through a cell after all of the active material has been converted to the charged state.
- Over-Discharged - Discharge past the point where the full capacity of the cell has been obtained.
- Primary Battery Detection - Primary batteries are not designed to be recharged. Many chargers can detect a primary battery and then terminate the charging process.
- Public Charging Points - For practical and peace of mind reasons the abundance of public charging points will be important. There are a number of potential methods for charging for their use including an annual fee with free access or charging by the unit of time used. These chargers will need to be deployed both on streets and in car parks. Other areas of consideration are charging access for blocks of flats and work based charging. Charging points, like water and power distribution networks and telecommunications networks, could be designated as regulated assets, typically enabling the service provider to cover installation and operating costs and achieve an adequate return on their investment. This could be an incentive for utility firms to install them.
- Rated Capacity - The average capacity delivered by a cell or battery on a specified load and temperature to a voltage cutoff point, as designated by the manufacturer; usually an accelerated test approximating the cell or battery’s capacity in typical use.
- Roaming - The ability to charge at different locations. The capability for the electric vehicle to charge as easily as a gas powered engine will be critical to mass deployment. This can be enabled by the Electric Vehicle but needs participation of a Clearing House and a nationwide effort on a common standard.
- SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers - Publishes automotive related standards in North America.
- SAE J1772- A North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles. It covers the general physical, electrical, communication protocol, and performance requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler. The intent is to define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector. The Standard defines Level I and Level II charging as well as the interface between the vehicle and the EVSE.
Level I and Level II charging utilize the same plug that actually plugs into the car. What is different is how those plugs are connected to the grid. SAE has also defined direct current (DC) fast charging, commonly referred to as Level III charging. The connector is designed for single phase electrical systems with 120V or 240V such as those used in North American and Japan and is designed to support electrical current up to 70A. The round 43 mm diameter connector has five pins and supports communication over power lines, to identify the vehicle and control charging.
J1772 covers the physical interface, control, and data signals for the coupler, including a control pilot signal, which:
- Verify that the vehicle is present and connected
- Transmit supply equipment current rating to the vehicle
- Allow energizing and de-energizing of the charge current circuit
- Monitor equipment grounds
- Establish vehicle ventilation requirements (e.g. battery pack fans commanded on or off)
The standard also provides for a proximity detector that will detect a plugged in coupler even if the charger is de-powered, to help prevent the vehicle operator from driving away with the coupler still engaged. Performance requirements include impact resistance and a life- span of 10,000 cycles.
- SAE J2293 - Standard for Energy Transfer System for Electric Vehicles - In addition to the specifications defining the physical connectors, interfaces, and power levels, SAE is also developing specifications that will govern the communication between vehicles and the grid. This standard defines all characteristics of the total EV Energy Transfer System (EV-ETS) necessary to insure the functional interoperability of an EV and EVSE of the same physical system architecture. The ETS, regardless of architecture, is responsible for the conversion of AC electrical energy into DC electrical energy that can be used to charge the Storage Battery of an EV.
- SAE J2836/1: Use Cases for Communication between Plug-In Vehicles and the Utility Grid. The standard, published in 2010, establishes use cases for two-way communication between plug-in electric vehicles and the electric power grid, for energy transfer and other applications.
It also provides a set of communication requirements for use with various load management and rate programs that will be established by utility companies related to the charging of plug-in electric vehicles. The various utility programs will enable consumers to charge their vehicles at the lowest cost during off-peak hours, and helps the utilities reduce grid impacts by minimizing electric vehicle charging during peak periods.
- Smart Charger - A charger that monitors the batteries condition and automatically terminates the main charge when it senses the battery is near full. Uses a microprocessor to monitor the battery voltage characteristics to determine when it is fully charged. Typically an algorithm based on a change of voltage is used with optional backup systems using temperature or timers. Often a low rate trickle charge is used to top the battery off or to maintain a full charge on the battery. Characteristics:
|SAE J1772 Plug and Receptacle|
- When compared to timer controlled chargers, smart chargers can typically charge batteries faster without impacting performance
- Relatively expensive due to advanced circuitry
- Generally higher battery temperatures associated with fast charging (less than 1 hour)
- Fast charging can negatively impact battery cycle life
3. Business Case
- PHEV battery charging will need to take place at a number of disparate locations – home, work, public car parks, and on-street. Smart metering will need to be widely available to optimize energy draw from the grid and enable the vehicle user to select the most cost efficient charging. This will enable the network to predict off peak requirements and to recognize and bill individual users. So far, charging points are in an early stage of their development. Charging Stations will not only need to be designed and manufactured in high volume, but they will need to be installed, networked and maintained.
- For PHEVs to dominate the market they will require similar levels of range and flexibility to those offered by current internal combustion vehicles (ICVs) Offering such high capability EVs will require a step change in battery technology,
- Where is charging infrastructure required?
- Home Base – 50 – 65 % of parking time (residential – fleet locations)
- Residential –
- Multi-unit Dwellings – Urban/Suburban Areas (variety)
- Generalized – Overnight Lot or Street Parking
- Parking Structures
The system is a combined charging approach that integrates all charging scenarios into one vehicle inlet/charging connector and uses identical ways for the vehicle to communicate with the charging station. Agreeing upon a single, harmonized DC fast charging system will help infrastructure planning, reduce vehicle complexity and improve the ownership experience for electric vehicle customers.
- See Benefits from PHEV Overview Blog
- Fast Charging - convenient, safe, and truly fast charging stations that recharge EV battery packs in less than ten minutes - rendering concerns about EV driving range a thing of the past. With its new, universal EV charging adapter, AV seeks to ensure safe and reliable charging for all EVs and HEVs. Scheduled for commercial rollout in 2010, the PosiCharge EV fast charge system is a powerful tool
- Improved Charging Efficiency – Current technology performs more work and uses less energy than with yesterday’s charging technologies.
- Cost Effective Commercial Vehicle Charging Points - The availability of charging points is unlikely to be an issue for commercial vehicles where charging can take place at the depot, but there are a number of challenges for cars.
- Battery Exchange Benefits
- Lower Up-front Cost - With the battery separated from the car, the down payment and resistance toward going electric goes way down. When you buy a Toyota, you don't buy eight years of gasoline. Since the battery accounts for about one-third of the cost of an electric car, the sticker price will be far lower than competing cars sold with batteries.
- Battery Degradation- Consumers don't have to worry about their battery degrading. In fact, their cars will stay younger longer because Better Place will circulate newer, longer-lasting batteries into the fleet.
- Batteries will decline in price over time. - A couple years ago, lithium-ion batteries sold for around $900 a kilowatt hour, according to various estimates. Now lithium batteries sell for less than $500 a kilowatt hour. In December 2010 study, Deutsche Bank (DB) analysts revisited some figures posted in its previous report and lowered their projected future costs for automotive batteries. DB's December 2010 study pegged the cost of lithium-ion batteries at $250 per kWh by 2020, a substantial reduction from the $350 per kWh it forecasted back in November 2009
- Regulatory Framework - One looming -- and possibly contentious -- issue is whether or not charging companies will be regulated as if they are utilities. Recently, Michael Peevey, the president of the CPUC, has signaled that that the CPUC may be inclined not to regulate these groups. California utilities are split on this question; PG&E, SCE and Sacramento Municipal Utility District claim that the charging providers are utilities, while San Diego Gas & Electric has stated that they should not be regulated.
- Consumer Confidence - In order for users of EVs to feel confident about purchasing vehicles and undertaking journeys, they will need reassurance that sufficient street parking/charging is available. Given the average journey length of 9 miles and that 93% of journeys are shorter than 35 miles, many cars will only occasionally use charging points away from their homes but, in order to have confidence in the vehicles, it will be important that public points are widely available.
- Range Anxiety - The current practical EV range limit is about 75 miles. Although this is sufficient to cover over 93% of all two-way journeys made, this is only about one fifth of the range of current ICEs. Consumers will have to adopt new “refueling” regimes and be prepared to have to wait considerably longer than current refueling times to enable continued use of their vehicle or to hire a long range ICE vehicle when needed. Li-ion batteries will continue to develop, offering higher energy density resulting in increased ranges to ease this problem. It is generally thought that electric cars with a comparable capability to current ICE vehicles will need a technological breakthrough, possibly only appearing towards the end of the time frame considered in this study. Until then there will be a degree of user anxiety regarding range surrounding whether there is enough charge left to complete their journey, but this should ease with familiarity and improved capability.
- Private vs. Public Charging - Government agencies need to walk a fine line in building out the electric vehicle charging infrastructure; too little public charging, and people may not buy the vehicles. But if people get used to charging for next to nothing, private charging networks may not get off the ground.
The government is keen on eliminating “range anxiety” — the fear that an electric vehicle might run out of battery power before it can be recharged — that could discourage consumers from buying electric vehicles. But if charging is readily available for free or at very low cost it could discourage the private sector from getting involved. The actual cost of the electricity to recharge a vehicle is on the order of $1 or so, depending on where you live.
Charging equipment companies such as Coulomb want to sell to retail establishments, such as restaurants, shopping malls, and parking garages that would recoup their investment by charging access fees. To date there’s been little investment in private charging stations, which is understandable as the vehicles won’t arrive for another year.
At $3,000 or more for a charging station, it will take a lot of vehicle charge sessions to recoup the investment. If people can charge at home for less than that or at free public stations, they may balk at having to pay several dollars for a charge. Therefore, privately owned stations could have a hard time attracting customers, or may only be able to charge a buck or two, which could make it very challenging to turn a profit.
- Plug Access - Not everyone has a socket — a secure place to park their car and recharge it. Those living in apartment buildings, for example, lack this ability. Even where a plug exists, it may not have sufficient amperage to handle the load. Charging at parking bays is more likely to be during the day and therefore electricity charges would be greater. This would be an incentive for most to only charge back at home overnight, however, in areas of high density housing there is minimal dedicated parking and overnight charging will pose a significant problem. If this has to be done at a parking bay it could be a major disincentive. With limited off street parking available in cities, roadside charging points will be required to enable overnight charging and some fast charging capability in sufficient numbers to ensure their availability. Limited availability of charging points would create a supply restriction of the market.
- Connection Standards - While Level I and II standards have recently been adopted in North America, there is not yet a standard for Level III charging. What does the connection between the car and the socket look like? Can it be standardized across vehicles? Doing so would avoid the rat's nest of incompatible connectors that we've come to expect from cell phones. And such connections will need to carry more than just electricity. They'll also need to enable smart communications, such as the ability to sell energy back to the grid, which involves billing or financial transactions. Incompatible connections may be fine for a phone, but not for a car, where a universal connection standard — akin to computers' USB cables and plugs — would ensure that any vehicle could connect to any plug, anywhere — and do so safely and durably.
In Europe, various camps in Germany, Italy, and France are at odds on the specification, and a IEC 62196-2 Type 2 meeting in June 2011 to reconcile the differences proved futile. The German automakers are fairly unified around technology proposed by Mennekes Elektrotechnik as well as the European Automobile Manufacturer’s Association. Despite the lack of a European standard, EV charging infrastructure is currently being installed today, with hundreds of street-side charge spots that are “dumb” outlets that provide the available power from household current without the additional safety or smart charging features that will benefit consumers and utilities in North America.
The German contingency also wants a single plug standard that could handle fast direct current (DC) charging as well, which would result in a fairly large connector that some view as too unwieldy for consumers to safely operate. In Japan and the United States, automakers and equipment manufacturers believe that two charge ports on the vehicle, (CHAdeMO for DC charging, and J1772 or an alternative plug for residential charging) is acceptable to consumers.
- Billing - Models for the settlement of PEV charging and discharging pricing, costs, and cross-utility payments are developing slowly, with significant technical and policy/regulatory unknowns. Proposals range from complex schemes for billing back to the driver’s (or the owner’s) home utility, simple charging as with current gasoline stations, to mixtures of prepaid and billed services as with cellular phones. When charging stations are ubiquitous, these issues will become even more important.
- Safety Issues with Inductive Coupling - It is a safe assumption that any sizeable charging scheme would use inductive coupling. Trying to design connectors to do all: handle high power, have many cycles, work in an outdoor environment, and be cost effective is a tall order for a galvanic approach.
- Long Residential Charge Times - In the US, 240V residential service is split phase (two 120V single phase lines that are 180 degrees out of phase from each other). Getting three phase service into a residence only serviced by single phase could be extremely expensive, so the bulk of three phase charging stations will probably be at places that already have the service - restaurants, shopping centers, hotels, etc.
- Economics of Charge Stations - A profitable business model for public charging infrastructure has not been reliably demonstrated. The only way for consumers to recover the cost of an expensive battery is to defray it over time with comparatively cheap electricity. This upper bound on the price consumers are willing to pay to charge their vehicles, and the readily available substitute of home charging, places an upper limit on what consumers will be willing to pay for public charging.
PHEVs require new supporting infrastructure, such as charge stations. Economies of scale for these services may or may not exist. The uptake of EVs and PHEVs is unlikely to be uniform across cities, neighborhoods or even streets, but charging points will need to be in place ahead of market uptake as no consumer would buy such a vehicle if they are unable to easily recharge their vehicle. Therefore a degree of under-utilization of charging points would be expected as the market develops. Current charging points cost between $8,000 and $12,000 to manufacture and install and this represents a significant cost which would need to be recouped within any business plan.
- Infrastructure for High Charging Rate - Fast charging will require an on-board charger capable of accepting higher rates of charge, which would be an additional cost on the vehicle. The problem with the idea of rapid charge / discharge for things like cars is the total amount of energy and therefore power required. Residential charging is fundamentally limited by the distribution networks in neighborhoods. Anything much more than 4kW on a wide scale would require new transmission infrastructure. For locales where a lot of power could be concentrated, heating becomes the next big issue. Recharging a totally electric car with decent range is a 30kWh - 50kWh proposition. Try and compress that into 10 minutes and the charging power rises to the neighborhood of one quarter megawatt. Thank you but I will personally stand at a safe distance from any machine delivering those kinds of power levels.
The amount of power loss in wiring grows as the square of the current, which is to say the inverse square of the charging time. Power loss drives temperature rise almost linearly. Safe power levels are limited by wiring insulation, and current ratings. The latter a function of the wire diameter and acceptable temperature rise.
The amount of total energy loss in wiring for a single charge up cannot be reduced below inverse proportion to the charging time. Under optimal conditions, charge up 10kWh pack in 10 minutes has one half the total energy loss in the wiring as doing the same thing in 5 minutes. real conditions, the losses grow at an even higher rate.
How will the capital costs associated this EV build-out be recovered from ratepayers?
- Limits to Fast Charging - Even if the supply power can be increased, most batteries do not accept charge at greater than their charge rate ("1C"), because high charge rate has adverse effect on the discharge capacities of batteries.
- Safety - 10 minute charges for a 200mile range translates to delivery of approximately a quarter MW. That's not easy, but from a power delivery standpoint perhaps possible. It is still a very dangerous power level. If a safety switch malfunctions, inopportune energizing could take out a pacemaker, or literally slam someone holding the device into the side of the car or other nearby ferrous metal. As dangerous as quarter MW levels are to charge in minutes, charging in seconds would require multi MW levels that I just don't see happening. Industrial electrocutions run about 700 per year. This is in a controlled environment with personnel who are supposed to be trained. Gas stations have trouble enough keeping the credit card readers working. Complex, systems involving high power delivery present very serious and difficult: safety, reliability and cost challenges.
- Roaming - Vehicle roaming within and across utility regions. Identification of vehicle ID to premise ID for automated billing –Volt owner directly billed for electricity used. Applies in multi family dwelling, public and workplace charging environments –Potential for 3rdparty aggregator.
- Charging Infrastructure Challenges (roughly in order of priority)
- Outreach to Multi-unit Dwellings (Prop. Mangers/Owners + HOAs) (6 months prior to need)
- Residential - Single Family Dwellings (options)
- Residential – Multi-unit dwellings (implementation of outreach)
- Workplace Charging – Organized entities with specific goals
- Commercial – Organized entities with specific goals
- General Access
- Battery Exchange Issues
- Fear, Uncertainly and Doubt. - It's just plain weird to buy a car but lease the most expensive component. Nissan recently announced it would initially not try battery rental strategy in the U.S. with the Leaf, due to negative response to the concept in customer surveys.
Americans hate renting. Graduating from renting an apartment to buying a home has become enshrined as hallmark of adulthood. And if there's one thing we hate more than renting, it's sharing stuff with strangers. Who had this battery before me? Is that smoke coming from the hood? The first time someone gets in a bad accident or the car conks, watch them blame it on some stranger's battery. How will this impact the resale price of the car? What if Better Place goes out of business? Is this like getting a car from Hertz? You might pay more money and feel cheap at the same time.
- Battery Removal - The battery pack for an average passenger car will weigh 250 to 300kg. To provide good weight distribution and thus safe handling of the car, the battery pack could be specifically designed for that vehicle and therefore integrated into the structure. If this were the case then to change the battery pack will be far more time consuming and difficult than those we are used to in our current ICVs, and will require specialized handling equipment.
- Safety – The electrical connection between the battery and the vehicle carries a very high current, and it is this connection that would need to be made and broken each time the battery is exchanged. At best, it will cause wear and degradation at the key link between the two components, at worst; it has the potential to cause a massive discharge, with all the consequences that might ensue.
- Inventory Stocking Costs - The battery pack shape and the electrical architecture is likely to be unique to each vehicle, unless standards were introduced; so every exchange station would have to carry a considerable stock of fully charged batteries even to support the most popular vehicle models. This would entail considerable financial outlay, which would have to be paid for by the end user.
- Hostility from Car Makers - The battery is one-third of the price of an electric car. That means car manufacturers only get to sell two-thirds of a car, leaving them and their dealers less wiggle room for haggling and making a profit. That should really warm car makers up to this. Car manufacturers -- on the whole, a conservative lot -- also worry about safety, warranties and design homogenization.
- Future Government Support - The only direct federal support for deployment of charging infrastructure, however, was a short-lived ARRA-funded Transportation Electrification Initiative, which provided $400 million to several communities to expand charging infrastructure in 2009.
- Close cooperation between manufacturers, utilities, battery suppliers, the government and consumers.
- Battery exchange would require a high level of vehicle standardization. The development of charging infrastructure will need to keep pace with the developing market to ensure consumer confidence in the ability to recharge their vehicles with minimal inconvenience.
- There should be standardization of recharging systems to maximize commonality and minimize development of manufacturer specific systems.
- On street charging will be necessary to encourage EV and PHEV uptake and regulated asset status for charging points would aid their deployment.
- Utility Roaming and Service Roaming
- Regions have multiple electric utilities
- A smart charging network lets the user have the same experience regardless of what utility’s region they are in
- An open charging network allows cross-billing and authorization with other smart charging networks
- Must have the ability to charge any car, subscriber or not
- A secure, safe, reliable way for consumers to charge their electric vehicles anywhere they park
- The ability to transition from gasoline tax revenues to tax models appropriate to electric vehicles
- Leverage existing recreational vehicles access to grid power already available at over 16,000 RV parks nationwide
- Safe, simple, reliable hookups
- Up to 12 kW at each hookup
- More RVs than FFVs + NGVs
- Over 30 million people with RV experience
- Standard approved hardware • 120V/240V • 50A rating typical • GFCI at newer parks
- Estimates are that 80 percent to 85 percent of charges will occur at home. As a result, a substantial portion of the charging market will likely revolve around hardware sale.
- Should there be a statewide EV rate?
- How can EV prices be made simple and clear for all customers? Should EV load be separate from the household load (and the block/tiered pricing schemes in place)?
- Will a separate meter be required?
- Can a foundation for the vehicle-to-grid concept be put in place right from the beginning?
- Reseach & Development
- Vehicle Metering and Applications
- Market/Rate Structures
- Settlement Process
- Installation is a lot cheaper if you plan for it. Parking spots should be provisioned with conduit at least
- Wide acceptance of plug-in cars demands a public charging network
- Plan for a large scale deployment
- Building codes should be modified to promote GEV adoption
- Ecotality is in the middle of deploying the EV Project, of which the DOE is funding half of its $230 million price with the other half coming from private investors. On August 5, 2009, The Electric Transportation Engineering Corp. Ecotality,was awarded $99.8 million by the DOE to set up a car charging network with 12,750 charging systems in Portland and three other Oregon cities, three cities in Tennessee, and in Seattle, San Diego, Phoenix and Tucson. In June 2010, the Project was granted an additional $15 million by the U.S. Department of Energy. There will be 400 DC chargers installed by ECOtality as part of the EV Project.
ECOtality is deploying chargers in major cities and metropolitan areas across the United States. Chevrolet Volt and the Nissan LEAF are partners in The EV Project and drivers who qualify to participate receive a residential charger at no cost. In addition, most, if not all of the installation cost, are paid for by The EV Project.
EV Project Locations August 2012
The EV Project collects and analyzes data to characterize vehicle use in diverse topographic and climatic conditions, evaluates the effectiveness of charge infrastructure, and conducts trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charge infrastructures. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to take the lessons learned from the deployment of the first thousands of EVs, and the charging infrastructure supporting them, to enable the streamlined deployment of the next generation of EVs to come.
The EV Project has qualified LEAF and Volt customers for participation based upon home electrical power capabilities. Because a significant amount of vehicle charging takes place at EV driver residences, a portion of The EV Project funding supports home charging units, or more correctly called "Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment" (EVSE). In exchange for allowing the collection of vehicle and charge information, participants receive a Blink wall mount charger at not cost, and in select locations, up to a $1200 credit toward the installation. This information includes data from both the vehicle and the EVSE, including energy used and time and duration of charger use.
- Walgreens is planning to install 800 electric vehicle chargers by the end of 2012. They've already learned it doesn’t have to be flashy, because people are using charge station finders in their car or on their smart phone – rather than driving around aimlessly looking for signs that say “charge here.” Second, it doesn’t have to be right next to the door, but it also gets expensive if it’s too far away from the electrical room. Lastly, 480-volt DC charging is the way to go – if you can get it. There are hundreds of DC chargers coming online in the next six months to a year.
Walgreens first got interested in offering electric vehicle charging when it was approached by NRG Energy to be a partner in its Freedom Charging Network in Texas. Earlier this year, NRG Energy announced it would install 70 stations in the Dallas/Fort Worth area and another 50 in Houston. (Only a fraction of those will be at Walgreens locations.) With a go big or go home attitude, Walgreens decided this was one way to set itself apart. “We realized the value from a competitive standpoint to be the first mover,” said Menno Enters, director of energy and sustainability at Walgreens.
Although Walgreens is enthusiastic about DC charging, it is installing only about 150 nationwide because of physical limitations – but not financial ones. “We wanted to maximize DC charging,” said Enters, “but our power infrastructure is not set up to have DC charging.”
Even if the bulk of the chargers are level 2, Enters said those could still offer a top off, even if it's not a fill up. Also, as more utilities get on board, there could be upgrades down the road to allow for more DC stations. Enters said that when they started calling utilities about electric vehicle charging, few were interested, and now they’re calling back asking to have Walgreens participate in EV charging pilots. Walgreens does not have the liberty of picking up its stores and moving them to a spot where DC charging would be ideal.
Eight hundred chargers make Walgreens by far the current leader, and if they hit their target of 20 percent being DC chargers, they will also be a retail leader in fast charging. But others could be close behind. “Since they stepped into the space, we are getting a tremendous number of inquiries about installation at other retailers.” Said Gerzancyh. Walgreens said it is also hearing rumors of others following in its footsteps.
To keep up with demand, 350Green just placed an order for 900 level 3 DC fast chargers from Efacec with 145 being delivered this year. Walgreens is working with 350Green and is assessing other charging companies in each locality for the rollout. There are no immediate plans to expand beyond the initial 800 chargers in 2012, but rather take a watch and wait approach as more EVs take to the road. “We have set out the bait and now we have to wait for the fish to bite,” said Enters. “We’ve had district managers ask about getting one, maybe dozens, cause people are asking if we’ll have charging if they get an electric car.”
- 350Green - Founded in Washington, DC in June 2008, and now headquartered in San Diego, CA - A developer of wide scale electric vehicle charging networks in major cities in the United States and around the world. Expertise is in site selection, engineering, construction and marketing for the Plug-in Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure, having been an initial partner in The EV Project, a $230 million private public-partnership for the installation of charging stations in US cities. Currently working on a roll out of the EV infrastructure in several major U.S. cities.
In addition to work on infrastructure planning, owns and operates the network as well as the relationship with the customers. The system provides monthly access to the entire network of the charging stations, conveniently located in public areas, parking lots, garages and other locations easily accessible to drivers.
350Green, one of Walgreen’s partners for installing the chargers, also just announced s separate project for 73 fast chargers in the Chicago area. Mariana Gerzancyh, CEO and co-founder of 350Green said her company has not had constraints for DC charging but that’s because 350Green is coordinating with local utilities from the start to identify a suitable location for the stations.
- ABB, a large power and automation equipment conglomerate, announced in July 2011 that it has acquired Dutch EV charging company Epyon Power. Epyon, a spin-off of Delft University of Technology, provides DC charging stations and supporting network software. One of Epyon’s electric charging patent applications ’048 Application “Electric charger for an accumulator or battery” is directed to an electric charger for rapid charging. ABB also invested $10 million into Ecotality in January 2011.
In May 2012, ABB entered the US market for electric vehicle charging solutions with the launch of its best-selling Terra 51 direct current (DC) charger, marking the start of a infrastructure rollout that will drive the adoption of electric mobility. The Terra 51 will be manufactured in New Berlin, Wisconsin and is available for delivery in the second half of 2012.
The Terra 51 is an intelligent DC fast charger that reduces electric vehicle charging times from eight hours, using regular alternating current (AC), to as little as 15 to 30 minutes. The Terra 51 was initially launched in Europe in 2010 as the region’s first commercially available DC charging station and is well established as the leading fast charger in terms of installed base, reliability and functionality.
- Aerovironment , Monrovia, CA- As the leading supplier of fast charge systems for industrial electric vehicles (EVs), AV has applied its unmatched battery and charge system expertise to improve electric and hybrid electric vehicle productivity and performance.
- Clipper Creek - Auburn, CA - The first on the market with high-rate charge stations that is compatible with all major automakers' Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicles.
- Columb Technology (cool-ohm), Campbell, CA - The Leader in Networked EV Charging Infrastructure. Coulomb Technologies provides a map of charging station locations in the USA. Even though it doesn’t cover all available stations, it’s a step in the right direction. It would be nice to see all stations worldwide on Google Maps, giving information about the supplier, availability of electricity and charging characteristics.
In May 2012, Coulomb completed $47.5 million in Series D financing. Braemar Energy Ventures and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers led the financing and were joined by Toyota Tsusho Corporation and existing investor Rho Ventures. Existing investors including Voyager Capital, Siemens Venture Capital GmbH, Harbor Pacific Capital Partners and Hartford Ventures also participated. The financing will enable Coulomb to expand its operations and further grow the ChargePoint(R) Network, the largest network of independently owned charging stations in the world, and expand the deployment of its next generation cloud-based charging solutions for electric vehicles. Additionally, Coulomb will expand its position in both existing and new markets. Scott DePasquale from Braemar and Michael Linse from Kleiner Perkins have joined Coulomb's Board of Directors.
- Eaton Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, a diversified power management company with 2010 sales of $13.7 billion, has teamed with Murphy Oil USA to establish a series of DC fast charging stations at select retail fuel outlets across the U.S. The collaboration, which previously involved one test location at a Murphy Oil outlet in Tennessee, builds on the success of that project. Murphy Oil, which operates more than 1,000 fueling stations in 21 states, sees added value in serving the burgeoning electric vehicle sector with DC fast charging stations. In addition, their co-location at many Walmart stores provides increased exposure for the new technology.
The display on Eaton's Vacaville rapid charger shows that the i-MiEV's batteries were charged to 8.8 kilowatt-hours in just six minutes and 26 seconds.
- Ecotality (NASDAQ: ETCY) San Francisco, CA - Ecotality hopes to generate revenue from four sources: hardware and equipment sales, monthly subscription fees from consumers and fleet owners, advertising at the charging stations, and grid services to utilities.
Subscription fees at the most basic level to Ecotality's Blink Network act as an insurance policy. For $5 to $10 a month, Ecotality subscribers will be able to reserve time at public chargers, get text messages about the state of the charge in their car, and get maps and directions to chargers. A social network for Ecotality customers will let them trade tips and advice on EVs. Subscriptions do not include home electricity and won't likely include power at public chargers at the most basic levels. Utility services will mostly revolve around ensuring that home charging occurs at night. Ecotality will receive fees for managing and timing home charging. Programs -- such as giving consumers large discounts (3 cents per kilowatt hour) if they comply with managed charging programs -- might get funneled through car charging service networks.
Ecotality has struggled to make a profit, posting a $22.5 million loss in 2011 and a $16.4 million loss in 2010. The company did post a $1.2 million profit in the first quarter of 2012 and has been receiving investment and licensing deals with ABB Technology Ventures, a European firm looking to bring the company’s Blink charging system to that continent.
ECOtality has been coming under attack for its use of federal funds to build out its cross-country charging network. A congressional panel is looking into the company’s grants, and the SEC is investigating the company’s recent financial dealings. Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney has attacked ECOtality’s federal funding in an ad connecting it and thin-film solar leader First Solar to Solyndra
- Ecotality North America- Phoenix, AZ - formerly Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec), a subsidiary of ECOtality(NASDAQ:ECTY), and is a recognized leader in the research, development and testing of advanced transportation and energy systems. Manufactures the Minit-Charger line of fast-charge systems for airport ground support equipment, material handling equipment, transit vehicles (buses) and light duty passenger cars. One of the oldest electric vehicle charging equipment manufacturers (10 years) It has installed more than 5,500 charging stations for on-road electric vehicles, material handling, airline, marine and transit applications., eTec has installed more charging stations for on-road applications (400) than any other company in the world.
Announced in March 2010 that its Chinese partner, Shenzhen Goch Investment, landed a $1.5 billion credit line, and that Shenzen Goch has committed $300 million of that credit line to finance sales of ECOtality’s electric vehicle (EV) charging systems to utilities, governments, and commercial and retail clients around the world. The credit line, offered by the China Construction Bank, will allow ECOtality to finance vehicle charging projects for its customers and reduce the upfront capital they otherwise would have needed to invest to get the projects moving.
- eVgo (pronounced ee-vee-go) - Houston, TX - The first U.S. commercial chain of charging stations, It is set to announce that it will have a total of 60 electric-vehicle charging stations in place by Labor Day 2011. It is owned by NRG EV Services, a subsidiary of NRG Energy, one of the largest electricity providers in Texas. So far, eVgo has said it plans to offer a subscription service through which customers get unlimited access to its stations for a set monthly fee, and it is developing a smartphone app that will alert users to nearby charging stations.
The eVgo network will consist of two types of charging stations: 480-volt DC rapid chargers, which take about 30 minutes to recharge an electric vehicle, and 240-volt Level 2 chargers, which take about four hours to recharge a vehicle.
The eVgo "Freedom Stations" will be open 24 hours a day, and offer both types of chargers. Twenty-five of those will be open in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, and 35 in the Houston area by Labor Day. A total of 70 will be in place in the Dallas/Fort Worth Area and 50 in the Houston area by 2012, according to NRG.
Customers of eVgo pay a flat monthly fee of $49 to $89, which can allow access to charging stations both at home and on the road. For the higher levels of membership, customers can get free power from their home chargers during off-peak hours.
In May 2012, ECOtality filed a lawsuit asking a California court to block a proposed settlement between NRG and the state that would see about 200 public chargers and some 10,000 charging systems built in the state. While NRG says the $100 million investment is a fair way to discharge a $1 billion overcharging infraction committed by a company it acquired, ECOtality calls it a backdoor way to monopolize the market.
- GE Wattstation - A version of the GE WattStation a Level 2 (240V) device designed for home use --launched in April 2012.
GE has partnered with ServiceMagic, a leading website connecting consumers with service professionals, to provide a network of certified electricians for reliable installation of the electric vehicle charger in the home. GE Capital, working with ServiceMagic, will provide financing options to qualified customers, enabling customers to pay for the charger and installation costs over time. The wall-mounted device, costs about $1,000 plus installation.
WattStations will rely on PayPal as the exclusive payment provider. PayPal will be embedded in the WattStation Connect mobile app, available now for iOS and Android, and will also soon power an RFID payment card. WattStation Connect app users will be able to find nearby WattStations through the app, get directions and check the availability of the station. To pay, they will scan a QR code on the machine to identify the WattStation and pull up pricing information. Then they’ll select how they want to pay, either by a flat rate or pay as you charge. Users will complete their transaction through PayPal and can begin charging.
Wall Mount GE Watt Station for Residential Use
- IdelAire, Knoxville, TN - Allows drivers to shut off their engines by providing heating and cooling wherever long-haul trucks congregate and idle. The only "retrofit" is a $10 window adapter for the truck.
- NRG Energy - Princeton, NJ b- NRG Energy is obligated by a legal settlement to invest $100 million in battery electric vehicle (BEV) charging infrastructure in California. According to NRG Energy, these investments resolve “all outstanding claims and disputes” pertaining to litigation between Dynegy, bought by NRG Energy in 2006, and the state, represented by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), over unsatisfactorily fulfilled electricity contracts during the 2000-01 energy crisis.
Investments will includeL
- A $50.5 million investment in 200 eVgo Freedom Station sites installed at commercial and retail locations, each with a level-three DC fast charger as well as a level-two medium-speed charger The eVgo Freedom Stations’ level-three DC fast chargers, each capable of putting a 50 percent charge on a fully electric vehicle in fifteen minutes, will constitute the U.S.’ biggest fast-charger network. The focus of the effort will be in the areas of Los Angeles (110 stations), San Francisco (55), San Joaquin Valley (15) and San Diego County (20), where BEV interest is expected to be highest. NRG Energy will locate at least 20 percent of them in urban areas where they will be more accessible to low- and moderate income groups
The stations will be owned and operated by NRG Energy and be much like theAeroVironment-built stations in NRG’s Houston charger network. They will be credit- and debit-card accessible. Plug-in vehicle drivers will have both pay-as-you-go and subscription access. Pay-as-you-go prices will be no more than $15 per charge during peak demand periods and $10 per charge during off-peak hours.
- A $40 million investment in 10,000 make-ready electrical installations, upgraded to 30 amp-capable and prepared for either a level-one or level-two charger installation to be completed within 24 hours to 48 hours
- A $9 million investment in advanced BEV charging technology and BEV car sharing programs. The investment will move the technology forward and expose more people to it. A total of $5 million will go to develop battery storage for peak demand periods, very high power charging capability, or for vehicle-to-grid pilot programs. The other $4 million will go to EV car sharing programs and job training programs in the charger infrastructure field.
- Project Better Place, Palo Alto, CA, Israel , Denmark, Australia, Hawaii, Canada - To ensure that we can confidently drive an EV anytime, anywhere, Better Place is developing and deploying EV driver services, systems and infrastructure. Subscribers and guests will have access to a network of charge spots, switch stations and systems which optimize the driving experience and minimize environmental impact and cost.
In early 2010 Better Place announced a $350-million Round B led by HSBC Group -- 1.85 billion kroner and 1.305 billion shekels, to be exact. It ranks as one of the largest cleantech deals in history, with a pre-money valuation of $900 million.
It is creating a market-based transportation infrastructure that supports electric vehicles, providing consumers with a cleaner, sustainable, personal transportation alternative. The main obstacle to the mass adoption of electric cars is driving range and costly batteries. Better Place eliminates these barriers through the use of swappable batteries to extend the range of the car and by owning the batteries directly so the driver doesn’t have to. With an infrastructure of battery charging spots and battery exchange stations, drivers experience the feeling of infinite range at a cost less than the cost of driving an internal combustion engine (ICE) car.
CEO Shai Agassi comes from enterprise software giant SAP and is one of the industry poster boys for IT execs hoping to make a splash in the greentech world.
- Schneider Electric , a €19 billion French company and a world leader in active energy management solutions, launched its own residential charger EVlink™ in February 2011 that includes a delayed charging option and an LED display.
On May 7, 2012, Schneider announced U.S. availability of its new EVlink DC Quick Charger for EVs. Schneider says users can charge 80% of their EV battery in less than 30 minutes using the charger.
- Siemens In February 20111, Siemens announced it is launching a charging point Charge CP700A on the European market which can charge electric cars with a normal battery capacity within an hour. The charging power has been doubled to 22 kW in the new series, which cuts the charging time in half.
- ShorePower (formerly ShurePower) Rome, NY - Currently deploying Electrified Parking Spaces (EPS) across North America. Shorepower provides EPS for Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) as well as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Shorepower TSE allows truck drivers to turn off their engines and plug into all weather electrical and communication outlets during mandatory rest periods. This reduces fuel costs, toxic exhaust emissions, maintenance costs and provides a better night's rest.
- Toyota Motor Corp will launch home battery chargers for electric and plug-in hybrid cars in 2012 as it starts selling new models of environmentally friendly cars, the Nikkei business daily reported in February 2011. The chargers, which will be compatible with non-Toyota cars, will come in two types, the Nikkei reported, citing company sources. One would extend from the exterior wall of a home and the other would be for setting up in a garage. The company expects to sell 20,000 to 30,000 units in the first year, with each costing about several tens of thousands of yen to 200,000 yen ($2,405) including installation costs, the Nikkei added.
- Clean Techies - Tag: Charging Stations
- Electric Transportation Applications - Urban Electric Vehicle (UEV) Technical Specifications – Effective January 1, 2003
- e-mobility Berlin was formed last year by two German industry giants, utility RWE and car manufacturer Daimler. Daimler plans to provide and service 100 Mercedes and Smart electric cars until the end of 2009, while RWE is handling the development of infrastructure and operation of the 500 charging stations. Daimler has been testing 100 Smart electric cars in London since 2007.
- Austrian Mobile Power platform was formed in July by six major Austrian companies, lead by national utility company Verbund. The companies agreed upon an initial joint investment of 50 million EUR and aim to bring 100,000 electric vehicles to Austrian roads by 2020. A test fleet of 100 cars will be starting as early as 2010, and it will be increased up to 1,000 EVs by 2013.http://www.sgiclearinghouse.org/standards?q=node/1905&lb=1